Yuri Ivanovich Pimenov (November 26, 1903, Moscow - September 6, 1977, Moscow) - Russian and Soviet painter, theater designer, master of the Soviet advertising poster, essay writer.
Features of the artist Yuri Pimenov: He was called the master of Soviet impressionism; Pimenov himself considered himself a “realistic impressionist” and did not intend to abandon his creative credo and artistic decisions even at a time when he was reprimanded and harassed by the authorities. Remaining deeply Soviet artist, Pimenov "took" party ideologues "from art" with the themes of his paintings devoted to the lives of contemporaries, reserving the right to perform them in the technique that was inherent to him: light, airy dabs, light, translucent colors, lyrical flow Topics. He did not immediately come to impressionism: in the early period of creativity one can trace his adherence to German expressionism, to which he will return during the Second World War. From the beginning of the thirties, clear contours and dark colors practically disappear from the works of Pimenov; the artist focuses on “lyrical and elegant art”, makes ordinary subjects unusual for technical performance and composition. Favorite themes of the artist are Moscow and Muscovites, the creative life of the Soviet people, the urban landscape.
The most famous paintings of Yuri Pimenov: "War Invalids", "New Moscow", "Front road", "Wedding in tomorrow's street".
Yuri Pimenov was born in 1903 in Moscow. The son of the assistant attorney attorney Ivan Vasilyevich Pimenov and the merchant's daughter Claudia Mikhailovna (born Babanina), Yura graduated from the 10th Moscow gymnasium. The boy's love for drawing came from his father, who was an amateur artist. Grammar school teacher noted a gifted student and gave him a pat on the admission to the Zamoskvoretskaya school of drawing. Coming to the Tretyakov Gallery, Pimenov necessarily went to see Savrasov’s canvas"The Rooks Have Arrived" - This picture was his favorite, each time caused admiration of the future artist. Then he rushed to the landscapes - Benoit, Somova, Levitan.
Study in VHUTEMAS
Pimenov, like many young artists of the time, got acquainted with the works of the Impressionists, coming to Bolshaya Znamensky Lane, to the estate of Trubetskoy, which belonged to the famous collector Sergey Schukin. Here, in the Shchukin gallery, he disappeared all day, admiring the paintingsMonet and Degas,Renoir and Matisse... When Pimenov turned 17, he showed his drawings to the artist Sergey Malyutin. Assessing the potential of the young man, the master took him to his workshop. Yuri Pimenov entered the Higher Art and Technical Workshops (VHUTEMAS) in the year of their education - 1920. Pimenov later wrote about his years of studying at VHUTEMAS: “We ... made noise in the auditorium of the Polytechnic Museum at reading poems, supporting Mayakovsky and Aseev, made noise at the performances of Meyerhold. But not only rustled. We learned the skill. I learned from Malyutin,Falileeva and very grateful to them. But most of all I learned fromFavorsky and maybe without a right, I want to consider myself his student ". Co-practitioners of Pimenov were Alexander Deineka, Andrey Goncharov, Peter Williams.
Society of Artists-Easel. Marriage
The first discussion exhibition of active revolutionary art associations was held in Moscow in 1924. Students of the VHUTEMAS took part in its work, having united by that time into groups of “projectionists” and “konkrechivistov”, as well as a “group of three” - it was composed by Yuri Pimenov, Alexander Deineka and Andrey Goncharov. A year later, together, all three groups founded the EAST - the Society of easel artists, followers of European expressionism. The dynamism of the composition, strict color solutions, monumentality and graphic character are characteristic of works created by Pimenov in the 1920s. The artist’s famous painting “War Invalids” (1926) fully reflects the tragedy of the post-revolutionary era, and the emotional message is complemented by the predominance of cold green tones and graphic image clarity. A year later, for the picture"Give heavy industry!" Pimenov received the award of the jury of the Exhibition of Artworks for the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution.
Contemporary Pimenov, artist Alexander Labas described his colleague as follows: “Pimenov was very active, fast, lively, cheerful, laughed a lot, loved to chat about trivialities, liked to get dressed, to pofrantit. There was an impression that he was doing everything without thinking, on the go, with a small smile, sometimes with a grin, he loved to laugh at someone, to joke, and then it all forgotten instantly, and he already spoke and laughed on another occasion. But among the empty childish conversations, Pimenov had serious notes of a thinking and analyzing person ... And the more I recognized him, the more I saw this side, his ability to synthesize and weigh everything based on a lot of imagination. ”.
In 1931, Pimenov married Natalia Bernadskaya (1908-1978), a typography stenographer by profession. Spouses dearly loved each other; Pimenov called Natalia his best model and often depicted in paintings. The artist wrote: "... remembering my work, done over many years, I see her figure, her hair or hands, they are not at all the same, but something always resembles the female that was closest to everything".
"Izobrigad", the disease and the change of creative landmarks
OST ceased its activities in early 1931, and some of the artists united in the “Izobrigad” group, to which Pimenov joined. Refusing to "petty-bourgeois and bourgeois influence", the new association declared "strengthening the proletarian sector in the arts." The existence of the Isobriga did not last long: the year 1932 was approaching, when all artistic associations were prohibited by law. The accusations of formalism and the absence of new creative methods sounded louder to Pimenov. “... We existed on the money that my wife earned with shorthand,” recalled Pimenov. At the same time, the artist fell ill: health troubles began with Pimenov bite mad dog. Despite the vaccination, the artist was scared of what had happened and was expecting the worst, his nerves were “spreading out” and he could not work, broken physically and morally. However, youth, a healthy body and the support of his beloved wife helped Pimenov to cope with the disease, and a little later with depression.
Pimenov struggled with emotional and creative emptiness, leaving the city on suburban trains. There he wandered in nature, in the forest and in the field, rediscovered for himself the joys of a simple life, watching the villagers. “... I had a desire to work, a desire to write and write directly from nature, from living nature, which so richly, subtly and beautifully existed around.
Return to work. "Software" pictures
From the beginning of the thirties, clear contours and dark colors practically disappear from Pimenov's paintings; the artist focuses on "lyrical and elegant art." Returning to work, he works hard in the field of designing theater productions, as well as illustrating books. Pimenov writes a triptych "Workers Uralmash", And in 1937 creates his famous painting "New Moscow". In this picture, everything is unusual, everything breathes a novelty: the newly rebuilt Okhotny Ryad, a new open car, the woman is driving. And a completely new, impressionistic technique of performance of work with a light fractional stroke, which will remain for a lifetime - with rare exception - the hallmark of the updated creative vision of the master. In 1939, Pimenov with a brigade of artists creates a panel "Physical Culture Parade in Moscow", which was exhibited at the USSR stand at the World Exhibition in New York, dedicated to architecture and urban planning.
The Second World War
During the Second World War, Pimenov returned to expressionism - this technique is most consonant with the terrible tragedy that the whole country experienced. Together with the artist Vladimir Vasilyev, he is working on TASS Windows. In 1943, Pimenov was sent to the North-Western Front, and then to Leningrad. The artist paints "Night Street" (1942),"Tire tracks" (1944),"Front road" (1944) and others.
Postwar creativity and teaching
Immediately after the war, Pimenova was invited to teach at VGIK at the art faculty. He became even closer to the cinema, which he loved very much, and in 1950 he took part in the work on one of the most famous post-war films - “Kuban Cossacks”. Pimenov enthusiastically draws a new Moscow and Muscovites, happily and aggressively restoring his native city after the devastation. His favorite genre becomes the urban landscape. The artist creates painting cycles “Things of every day” (1959) and “New quarters” (1963-1967); for the latter he is awarded the Lenin Prize.
Thanks to colorful and vivid motifs, Pimenov managed to bring lively, enchanting stage decisions into the Soviet theatrical life of the mid-twentieth century. Interesting were the performances made by the artist for the Maly Theater - “Wolves and Sheep” by A.N. Ostrovsky (1941), “For those in the Sea!” B. A. Lavrenyov (1946), design of the play “Cyrano de Bergerac” E .Rostan staged by Lenkom (1943). Pimenov sought to cover all aspects of the artistic solution of the production - from the scenery and costumes to the design of posters and program. As director Maria Knebel recalled, “... he worked in the theater as a joke. He, accustomed to the painstaking work of the easel painter, was fun to invent a decorative image of the performance ... The artistic image of the Pimenovsky scenery was a synthesis of our joint quest and always enriched the director's idea ". The theater also penetrated the artist's paintings: he painted portraits of actresses, his life behind the scenes. For theatrical works Yuri Pimenov was twice awarded the Stalin Prize - in 1947 and 1950.
Writing and Recognition
Having successfully survived the terrible years of repression, accusations of formalism and criticism, Pimenov nevertheless became completely "Soviet" and was favored by the authorities. In addition to state awards, since the mid-50s, he regularly traveled abroad and wrote a number of essays on his travels to Italy, France, England, and India. The mood of the political “thaw” was reflected not only in the artistic work of Pimenov: in the 60s he writes and publishes a number of books that are resolved in the essay genre: “Year of Travel” (1960), “Art of Life or“ Art Nothing ”(1960) “Unusualness of the ordinary” (1964), “New quarters” (1968), etc. His paintings are similar to the Soviet pop song - they are light and vital, they are remembered, they are liked and understood by everyone without exception. To Pimenov comes state recognition: he becomes the people's artist of the USSR (1970), the holder of the Order of Lenin (1973).
Yuri Pimenov died on September 6, 1977 in Moscow.