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Andrei
Efimovich Martynov
Russia 
1768−1826
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Student of the Academy of Arts was formed under the leadership SEM. Shchedrin . Upon completion of the course with a gold medal and sent abroad. In Rome he worked under the influence of F. Hackert. Received the title of academician, and then counselor of the Academy. Accompanied count Golovkin in Beijing and wrote many types of Siberia and China; visited the Crimea and the Volga river, where also borrowed plots to landscapes. Died in Rome. From his works are given two Crimean species (in the Museum of Alexander III ), view near Rome (in the Museum of the Academy of fine Arts) and Saxon view (in the Rumyantsev Museum). Martynov played a lot of drawings in watercolour and gouache. Known for its colored lithographs of St. Petersburg.

Andrei Efimovich Martynov - the famous from a talented family (his son and brother were also painters). In 1788 he graduated from the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg (class of landscape painting of the great painter S. F. Shchedrin). After graduating with the title of the artist XIV class and with a gold medal went abroad.

 

After honing his skills in Italy (1788-1794), was a talented young artist returned to Russia. As a result of his activities during this period, he presented a series of landscapes: “Landscape” (1790), “Ponte Lucano on the way from Rome to Tivoli” (1794) and many other paintings.

 

Academy of fine Arts has milked his talent by awarding the title was appointed in 1795, after 3 months – giving the title of academician in 1802 - adviser to the Academy of fine Arts. This gave the opportunity Martynov to special orders of the court and nobles. And so, together with the teacher, Semyon Fyodorovich Shchedrin he writes of wall paintings and frescoes for the interiors of the Pavlovsk Palace and murals in the palaces and wealthy homes of Gatchina and Tsarskoye Selo. Unfortunately, it has not helped the artist to enter an academic environment, that guarantee a relatively honorable position and privileges.

 

The artist gradually leaves easel painting and begins to devote more time to the chart. To this, his inspiring journey. Living in other countries, Martynov found new images for his works.

Already in 1804, the author visited the South of Russia and "removed from all the cities". In 1805 Martynov as chief artist of the Russian Embassy, which was headed at that time the count J. A. Golovkin, visited many cities of Russia from Moscow all the way to Urga (modern Ulan Bator) is a Mongolian main camps of nomads in the Gobi steppe.

 

In the end, this journey Martynov collected rich in-situ material, which later became the basis for a large number of graphic cycles. Here are some of them: a series of watercolors “Types of Russia and Mongolia”, 23 leaves (1806-1810.), a series of engravings “Types of the peoples of Russia and Mongolia”, 39 sheets, (1808), an album of watercolours, 29 leaves (1814-1819.), which was the original for the album of etchings “Picturesque journey from Moscow to the Chinese border” (1819), and many others.

 

Another trip Martynov made in the summer of 1810, to the entourage of Empress Elizabeth Alekseevny, on the coast of the Baltic sea. There was a series of gouaches “Landscapes of the Baltic States” (1810s).

 

To contain at that time already a large family, Martin began working as a decorator in the Directorate of Imperial theatres. There he worked for thirteen years, embodying the ideas of others until he retired in 1821 a Final period of creativity Martynov turned out to be quite productive. In 1820-ies he created their best image series that provided the artist's posthumous fame and a place of honor in the history of art in Russia.

 

Martynov perfectly mastered the technique of engraving on metal, this is confirmed by his works, which are preserved a large number. Among them are “Satirical pictures on the theme of the Patriotic war of 1812”, 7 sheets, 1812-1813., the series of engravings “Types of villas of count P. A. Stroganov, the Black river and the Stone island”, 10 sheets, 1813-1814, a series of etchings “Russian folk types”, 30 sheets, 1816, “Neva Embankment”, 6 etchings, 1817, etc.

 

Andrey Yefimovich Martynov was one of the first artists of Russia enjoys lithograph (printed charts), which was invented in Germany in the late 18th century. Own lithographic workshop came from the artist in the 1820s, In 1821 newspaper "Kunst-Pull" ("Kunst-Blatt"), and in 1822 the newspaper "Russian invalid" is written on the lithographic series "views of St. Petersburg and its environs" Martynov: "this collection of work was he also from his drawings of the Imperial palaces and picturesque views of Pavlovsk, Tsarskoye Selo, Gatchina, Oranienbaum, Peterhof, and other places..."

 

This series, which was more than 50 sheets is considered the best achievement of the artist. It was written in the early 1820s, at that time expressive Petersburg sounded in the works of many famous poets and artists. Andrey Yefimovich Martynov was close to the romantic vision that brought together his masterpieces with works na. M. Karamzin, V. A. Zhukovsky, K. N. Batiushkov. Weightless, transparent sheets, which were impressed with a weak tone lithographic ink with a fine-grained stone, stand out against the works of other creators. Martynov managed indeed impossible - to find the graphic language to create a unique style in lithography. His works are still perfect, without equal, watercolor coloring or printing in brown colour.

 

Also known to many of his famous “St. Petersburg” of the series, the author has created several lithographs: “the Ball is in Irkutsk”, 6 sheets (1821-1824.), “the Collection of Russian costume” (1821 - 1822)., “New collection of Russian costumes”, 17 sheets (1822), “the Mongolian subjects. From the journey at the Russian Embassy in China”, 20 sheets (1822-1824.).

 

At that time the health of Martynov, which has been undermined by hard work, were getting worse. Following the advice of doctors, the artist went to Italy in 1824, where he died in 1826.

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