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Corrado Giacuinto

Corrado
Giacuinto

Italia 
1703−1765
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Italian painter of the Neapolitan school of the Rococo period. The biographer of the artist Carlo de Domenici said that he was trained in the workshop of N. Rossi, but a significant influence on him Francesco Solimena. The period 1723-1724 years, Giaquinto Corrado spent in Molfetta, until 1727 was in Naples; in 1733-1735 in Turin; from 1740 till 1753 in Rome, where he became a major designer, performing the orders of Pope Benedict XIV, is not dependent on tourists to the Eternal city, unlike C. Conca, F. Trevisani, so his works are not in the English collections, and in the Italian churches, palaces of the Spanish Royal collections.

The period 1723-1724 held in Molfetta, until 1727 was in Naples; 1733-1735 in Turin; 1740-1753 in Rome, where he became a major designer, performing the orders of Pope Benedict XIV, is not dependent on tourists to the Eternal city, unlike C. Conca, F. Trevisani, so his works are not in the English collections, and in the Italian churches, palaces of the Spanish Royal collections. From 1753 to 1762 he lived in Spain, worked at the court of Ferdinand IV, was "the first painter" at the court of the Bourbons after the departure of John. B. Tiepolo and before the arrival in 1762 of A. R. Mengs, executed decorative works in the new Royal Palace in Madrid, Escorial, Aranjuez, headed the Academy of fine arts of San Fernando in Madrid. From 1740 member of the Roman Academy of St. Luke, in Rome set up a workshop for Spanish painters, where he studied A. G. Velasquez, P. de La VEGA, H. del Castillo, etc. the Last years of his life were spent in Naples (1763-1765), working at the court of Carlos III, decorating the Royal Palace of Caserta.

In the early Neapolitan painting of the period the Annunciation (Naples, collection Pucci) was influenced by F. Solimena (it is an altar image in the Church of Santa Maria Donnalbina) and Luca Giordano (of his works in Certosa di San Martino 1704). In the works of the Turin period for Villa del Regina (CA. 1733) and the Church of SV. Teresa (CA. 1735) the artist's palette becomes more bright, it is dominated by pastel colors, light-dark transitions more smooth, but still dominated by Baroque expression in the style of masters of the Neapolitan school.

In Rome, a tailor-made style, Giaquinto as master of the Roman Rococo in contrast, since Moratti evolved to Neoclassicism. One of the first works of Giaquinto in Rome — the altar song SV. Nicholas of Bari, healing soldiers (1746, Stuttgart, GOS. art gallery), executed for San Nicola dei Lorenesi, the most famous Franciscan Church of the XVII century in Rome. The image of Nicholas of Bari, Bishop of Mira, the patron Saint of his native city of Molfetta, was close, Giaquinto. Known painting from the life of St Nicholas of Bari (Stockholm, NAT. gallery), executed by the artist. In 1739 giaquinto patron, cardinal Ottoboni, P. ordered his altarpiece the assumption of the virgin Mary (1739, sketch, States, private collection) to the Church of Santa Maria Assunta in Rocca di Papa in Frascati. Smooth delicate brushstroke, pastel colors, graceful figures of the apostles and Mary, ascended to heaven, is distinguished manner, Giaquinto. The most famous artist earned after the execution of the frescoes in the Roman Church of Santa Croce in Jerusalem (CA. 1744) by order of Pope Benedict XIV St. Helena and the Emperor Constantine presented by the Madonna and St. Trinity. Like Solimene, Giaquinto depicts many figures: the Emperor and his mother, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. John the Evangelist, Lucifer, angels, supporting the cross — is the main relic of the Passion of Christ, brought by Helena from the Holy land. However, in the multi-figured scene there is a Baroque pathos, it is full smooth motion of shapes in a light blue celestial space. Even in lighter tones of grey and blue marks painted transept of the Church, the worship of the Copper snake. Pink, yellow, and blue colours of the robes of the saints in both paintings are gently fused with a cool background. "Perfect harmony" of color, Giaquinto noted by many contemporaries, including George. P. Bellori. The decoration of the interior of the Church was not completed, as the papal Curia was not sufficient funds. In one of the later works of the Roman period — the altar the image of the Baptism of Christ (CA. 1750, the Church of Santa Maria del Orto, the chapel of St. John the Baptist) in the figures of saints and two angels appeared, some sweetness, reminiscent of images of Blanca F. Albani, palette, Giaquinto more monotone in color. The Church ensemble was created by the sacred 1750, it was restored by the architect G. Valvassori, since she was turned into a hospital.

Period 1753-1762, Giaquinto spent in Spain. For a new Royal Palace in Madrid, the residence of the Bourbons, K. Giaquinto executed the frescoes on allegorical scenes glorifying their reign that brought peace and justice of Spain (Spain pays homage to religion and the Church, the birth of the Sun, the Triumph of Bacchus). In the composition of Spain pays homage to religion and the Church Philip V and his son Ferdinand IV depicted as the heroes of Scripture — king David and king Solomon, in the background of their Palace, likened to Solomon's temple. Program paintings was made by the famous scholar Martin Sarmiento. In the mural Justice and Peace (sketch — Indianapolis, Museum of the Academy of San Fernando) allegorically spoke of the role of Ferdinand VI in the conclusion of peace at Utrecht in 1713, which gave peace to his people. For the Royal chapel in the Palace, Giaquinto performed eight frescoes, one of which SV. James, who appeared in battle with the Moors at El Clavio (1754-1759) reproduced an episode from the Reconquista, when, according to legend, the soldiers appeared to St. Jacob. He is depicted in a bright dress on a white horse, accompanied by an angel. In Madrid, Giaquinto created the official style of the Kingdom of the Bourbons, which persisted throughout the nineteenth century.

From 1762 the artist was in Naples at the court of the monarch of the Kingdom of the two Sicilies Carlos III of Bourbon, becoming his court painter. Together with the architect L. Vanvitelli, he oversaw the decoration of the Royal Palace of Caserta, singing the mural Allegory of Strength and Vigilance (1763) and the cycle of six paintings from the history of the virgin Mary for the Palace Church of San Luigi.

Corrado Giaquinto was one of the brightest masters of the first half of the eighteenth century; in his works manifested characteristic of the painting of this time a gradual departure from the principles of the Baroque, development of the techniques of the Rococo, which he tried to combine with the traditions of the Roman school, which is still dominated by the techniques of the Bolognese.

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