He started his career as a painter self-taught. Only in 1784 was engaged in the Studio of Jean-Baptiste Renaud in Paris. After several years of painting to allegorical and mythological themes, he was engaged in portraits, and succeeded. He participated in the Salons in 1791-1827. Thanks to the patronage of Dominique Denon, the Director General of Museums, Robert Lefebvre has received numerous commissions from Napoleon. His career continued under Louis XVIII, he became a court painter.