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Giovanni di
Paolo

Italia 
1400−1482
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Giovanni di Paolo (ital. Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia; approx. 1400 — 1482, Siena) — Italian painter, Sienese school.

In art history there were a lot of artists whose names for several centuries was neglected. The reasons were different, but one of the main — aprerequisite opinion of Giorgio Vasari, who himself as a painter and Mannerist, as the artistic ideal has exhibited the work of Raphael, Michelangelo and subsequent Mannerists. To such forgotten artists belonged to, for example, Sandro Botticelli, which is "remembered" only in the late nineteenth century. Such masters applies Giovanni di Paolo, who has received well-deserved posthumous fame only in the XX century.

Date of birth Giovanni di Paolo unknown, it is set on the basis of the first existing document in which his name appears — it is dated 1423. Works that Giovanni di Paolo created to 1426 has not been preserved. The earliest known works of Giovanni, the so — called "Pecci Polyptych" (1426 g) In its center was the painting "Madonna with angels" (now in Castelnuovo Berardenga, Prepositura), on the sides of the sash with the image of "SV. Dominica" and "John the Baptist" (now Siena, Pinacoteca), and the bottom row gospel scenes predelli — "the raising of Lazarus," "Christ Carrying the cross," "descent from the cross" (Baltimore, the Walters Gallery), and "the Crucifixion" (Altenburg, Lindenau Museum). Despite the fact that different critics see in the works of Giovanni di Paolo reministsentsii different from the work of contemporary artists Giovanni, or the Sienese masters of the first half of the XIV century (as a "donor", in which Paolo di Giovanni borrowed certain elements, techniques or a creative spirit, are the names of Taddeo di Bartolo, Gregorio di Cecco, Gentile da Fabriano, Sassetta, Simone Martini, and Ambrogio Lorenzetti), the artist created his own, very personal style that is easily recognizable even for non-professional look.

Whimsical fantasy and a striking expression of the works of Giovanni reflect an unusual view of the world, which was characteristic of this master. Not by chance in the early XX century, interest was shown by the artists — expressionists, and Surrealists. The fabulous world of sleep, or Gothic dreams, created by Giovanni, was indifferent to the bustle of Florentine artistic innovations. Innovations introduced in the XV century Sienese painting, in particular, Sassetti, had on the works of Giovanni di Paolo a formal impact. For example, in the scenes predelli "Polyptych Fondi" (1436, "in the temple, the Flight into Egypt" — Siena, of Munich; "the adoration of the Magi" — Otterlo, Museum Kröller-müller) motifs seemingly borrowed from Cassette transformed into a surreal, Gothic motifs, with landscapes reminiscent of the frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Paolo di Giovanni was a contemporary of Vecchietti and Pietro di Giovanni d ' Ambrogio, saw their art, something they have borrowed, but translated all of the borrowing in some archaic language. He wrote several versions of "the Crucifixion"(1440, Siena, Pinacoteca; 1440 C. San Pietro Ovile; Dublin, NAT.gallery) and a few scenes from the life of John the Baptist (Chicago, Art Institute; new York, Metropolitan Museum; münster, Museum, Avignon, the Petit Palais; Pasadena, Norton Simon Museum), in which the spirit of ancient asceticism.

Giovanni di Paolo has created a variety of easel painting, it was mostly a polyptych. He also was engaged in book miniature, known and written for Siena Bickery tavoletta. Of particular note are his works such as "Christ in Gethsemane" (up to 1440 Vatican, Pinacoteca), "the Madonna of tenderness" (Siena, Pinacoteca; Boston, Museum of fine arts); "Paradise" and "Expulsion from Paradise" (new York, Metropolitan Museum), "Polyptych" (1445,Florence, Uffizi), the altarpiece "St. Nicholas" (1453 Siena, Pinacoteca), "St. Jerome" (Siena Cathedral Museum). Late artist's works, such as "Polyptych of San Silvestro" (1475, Siena, Pinacoteca) is much less interesting than the works of its Golden age — 1440-50s. Giovanni di Paolo was a unique master, which has virtually no followers. To some extent this role can claim Pellegrino di Mariano.

Italian painter of the late Gothic and proto-Renaissance through. Date of birth Giovanni di Paolo unknown, it is set on the basis of the first existing document in which his name appears — it is dated 1423. Works that Giovanni di Paolo created to 1426 has not been preserved. The earliest known works of Giovanni, the so — called "Pecci Polyptych" (1426). At its center was the painting "Madonna with angels" (now in Castelnuovo Berardenga, Prepositura), on the sides of the sash with the image of "SV. Dominica" and "John the Baptist" (now Siena, Pinacoteca), and the bottom row the gospel scenes of the "Resurrection of Lazarus", "the carrying of the cross," "descent from the cross" (Baltimore, the Walters Gallery), and "the Crucifixion" (Altenburg, Lindenau Museum).

Despite the fact that different critics see in the works of Giovanni di Paolo reministsentsii different from the work of contemporary artists Giovanni, or the Sienese masters of the first half of the 14th century (as a "donor", in which Giovanni di Paolo borrowed certain elements, techniques or a creative spirit, are the names of Taddeo di Bartolo, Gregorio di Cecco, Gentile da Fabriano, Sassetta, Simone Martini, and Ambrogio Lorenzetti), the artist created his own, very personal style that is easily recognizable even for non-professional look.

Whimsical fantasy and a striking expression of the works of the painter Giovanni di Paolo reflect an unusual view of the world, which was characteristic of the master ("Holy Clarissa rescues a sailor, the wreck of the", 1455-1460, State Museum, Berlin). Not accidentally in the early 20th century, interest was shown by the artists — expressionists, and Surrealists. The fabulous world of sleep, or Gothic dreams, created by Giovanni, was indifferent to the bustle of Florentine artistic innovations. Innovations introduced in the 15th century in the Sienese paintings, in particular, Sassetti, had on the works of Giovanni di Paolo a formal impact. For example, in the scenes of "Polyptych Fondi" (1436, "Crucifixion", "the presentation in the temple, the Flight into Egypt" — Siena, of Munich; "the adoration of the Magi" — Otterlo, Museum Kröller-müller) motifs seemingly borrowed from Cassette transformed into a surreal, Gothic motifs, with landscapes reminiscent of the frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Paolo di Giovanni was a contemporary of Vecchietti and Pietro di Giovanni d ' Ambrogio, saw their art, something they have borrowed, but translated all of the borrowing in some archaic language. He wrote several versions of "the Crucifixion"(1440, Siena, Pinacoteca; 1440, Church of San Pietro Ovile; Dublin, national gallery) and several scenes from the life of John the Baptist (Chicago, Art Institute; new York, Metropolitan Museum; münster, Museum, Avignon, the Petit Palais; the Pasadena Foundation Norton Simon), in which the spirit of ancient asceticism.

Giovanni di Paolo has created a variety of easel painting, it was mostly a polyptych. He also was engaged in book miniature, known and written for Siena Bickery tavoletta. Of particular note are his works such as "Christ in Gethsemane" (1440, Vatican, Pinacoteca), "the Madonna of tenderness" (Siena, Pinacoteca; Boston, Museum of fine arts); "Paradise" and "Expulsion from Paradise" (new York, Metropolitan Museum), "Polyptych" (1445, Firenze, Uffizi), the altarpiece "St. Nicholas" (1453, Siena, Pinacoteca), "St. Jerome" (Siena Cathedral Museum). Late artist's works, such as "Polyptych of San Silvestro" (1475, Siena, Pinacoteca) is much less interesting than the works of its Golden age — 1440-1450 years. Giovanni di Paolo was a unique master, which has virtually no followers. To some extent this role can claim Pellegrino di Mariano.

In art history there were a lot of artists whose names for several centuries was neglected. The reasons were different, but one of the main — aprerequisite opinion of Giorgio Vasari, who himself as a painter and Mannerist, as the artistic ideal has exhibited the work of Raphael, Michelangelo and subsequent Mannerists. To such forgotten artists belonged to, for example, Sandro Botticelli, which is "remembered" only in the late 19th century. Such masters applies Giovanni di Paolo, who has received well-deserved posthumous glory only in the 20th century.

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