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Federico
Barocci

Italia 
1535−1612
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Already in his youth acquainted with the works of Titian, who was in Urbino, Barocci in the mid-1550 went to Rome, where he studied the works of Raphael and became friends with Taddeo Zuccaro.

In 1560-1563 Barocci again visited Rome, where he took part in the decoration of the casino of Pope Pius IV. Soon, however, he was poisoned (or was poisoned), managed to get to Urbino, where for a long time ill, and for four years, until 1567, did not take up the brush; bouts of illness and depression stalked him to the end of days.

In 1560 Barocci returned to Rome and settled in the home of the brothers Zuccari the influence of which is felt in the paintings Barocci in the casino of Pius IV (started Zuccari).

Pupil of Battista Franco and Urbino painter and architect, Girolamo jenga. Already in his youth acquainted with the works of Titian, who was in Urbino, Barocci in the mid-1550 went to Rome, where he studied the works of Raphael and became friends with Taddeo Zuccaro.

In 1560-1563 Federico Barocci again visited Rome, where he took part in the decoration of the casino of Pope Pius IV. Soon, however, he was poisoned (or was poisoned), managed to get to Urbino, where for a long time ill, and for four years, until 1567, did not take up the brush; bouts of illness and depression stalked him to the end of days.

The first significant work of Federico Barocci written by 22-year old artist even before his journey to Rome — the altar painting "the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian" (1557, Urbino Cathedral) gives as its orientation to the Roman school, with its cult of drawing and energy modeling of the forms and traditions of the Venetian school, with its coloristic richness.

In 1560 Barocci returned to Rome and settled in the home of the brothers Zuccari the influence of which is felt in the paintings Barocci in the casino of Pius IV (started Zuccari). In the 2nd half of the 1560-x Barocci fulfills the order for two large altar painting "Madonna with St. Simeon" (approx. 1567, Urbino, an Art gallery) and "the descent from the cross" (1567-1569, Perugia Cathedral). The painting "the Madonna with Saint Simeon" shows the influence of Correggio, but is more bravura. The descent from the cross with its dynamics and effects of chiaroscuro anticipate the Baroque style. Even more protobalanus trends anticipates one of the most spectacular altarpiece Barocci "Madonna del Popolo" (1575-1579, Florence, Uffizi gallery).

Barocci in some way trying to overcome the academic dryness and cold pomposity of contemporary Mannerist painting, let art agitated poetry, spirituality. That is why he is in the quest for emotional expressiveness of a language refers to the art of Correggio, as evidenced by the pretty grace of its imagery, and whimsical elegance of decorative solutions, and a kind of hazy chiaroscuro. Therefore, he opposed his contemporaries committed to the freedom of brushwork, subtlety of color solutions (no wonder Barocci biographers tell us that he compared the coloring with music and creating new paintings began with sketches in color). But the Foundation searches Barocci is deeply reactionary. Having experienced the impact of the ideas of the major figures of the counter-reformation Filippo Neri, Barocci seeks to communicate the immediacy of the emotional impact especially Church painting, combining the mood of religious ecstasy with an intimate lyricism. It leaves a distinct imprint on his work, which is constantly increasing religious sentiment, outdoor melodrama, pretentiousness. In the idyllic "Rest on the flight into Egypt" (1573; the Vatican) and the famous "Madonna del Popolo" (1579; Uffizi) the gracefulness of female characters borders on campy flirtation, their smiling faces, shrouded in the haze of light and shade, be a doll, dyed blonde, almost pastel coloration acquire sugary character.

Barocci was an outstanding portraitist. His portraits, like the front ("Francesco Maria II della Rovere", 1572; Uffizi) and more intimate ("portrait", 1560-e; the Hermitage), characterized by a subtle spirituality. But in the later portraits, "Giuliano della Rovere" (1580-e; Vienna Museum), the portrait (Salzburg) — spirituality becomes a unilateral underscore the spiritual life, spiritualization that brings these works Barocci with portraits of El Greco. Recent work, paintings, frescoes and altar images of the artist Federico Barocci with their pathetic, black and white contrasts, bold cool colors anticipate the Baroque painting. Among his best works of this period include "the Blessed of Michelina" (1606, Vatican, Pinacoteca). More recent work Barocci — "the Circumcision of the infant Christ" (1590, Paris, Louvre), the "Madonna del Rosario" (1593, Sinigalia, Bishop's Palace) — show the same bold style, underlined by black and white contrasts.

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