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Pedro
Berruguete

Spain 
1450−1504
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Under the assumptions studied art in Salamanca, Fernando Gallego. Young went to Italy, where he worked under the patronage of federigo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, worked together with Justus van Ghent on a series of portraits of contemporaries of the Famous men (Pope Sixtus IV, etc.), met melozzo da forlì and Piero della Francesca. In 1483 he returned to Castile. He worked in the Cathedral.Maria Toledo. By order of Torquemada painted the Central altar of the monastery of SV.Thomas in Avila. Also worked in the Church of the ascension in Santa Maria del Campo, in the monastery of Miraflores under Burgos. The last years of his life he worked in his hometown.

A native of Castile, whose art in the second half of the XV century was dominated by the Dutch master, called the Catholic kings, Berruguete in his work followed the Gothic tradition, enriching it with new elements borrowed from the Italian Renaissance. The best painter in Italy roughly between 1472 and 1482 no doubt the majority of researchers. R. Longhi first attributed to ber-Rugate scenery hall of federigo da Montefeltro in the Palazzo Ducale in Urbino; this was confirmed by two documents - one of them originating from the notarial archives of Urbino, mentions the presence in 1477 artist "Pietro Spagnolo"; in another, speech Pablo de céspedes (1604), says that the Spanish artist painted portraits of famous people in the Urbino Palace. These decorations include "Portrait of the Duke of Federigo son, Guidobaldo" (Urbino, Palazzo Ducale), surrounded by 28 figures, scientists and philosophers of antiquity and modernity, is presented in two registers on inlaid ornament (14 portraits - Paris, Louvre; 14 - Urbino, Palazzo Ducale). The structure of the ensemble, perhaps, belongs to Italian (melozzo da Forli), a part of the composition - Fleming (Iosu van Ghent), and some individuals in the upper register filled Berruguete. Despite some doubts, it is undeniable part in the panel "the Duke of Urbino, his son and courtiers, receiving a lesson humanist" (London, HAMPTON Court Palace), and four "Allegories of the liberal arts," written for the Palace library (two - London, NAT. Gal.; two Berlin Museum; not preserved). In Urbino Berruguete may be met with many masters, particularly Piero della Francesca, for whom he played the hand and the headdress of federigo da Montefeltro in his painting "Madonna with saints and Duke of Urbino" (Milan, Pinacoteca Brera). It is also likely that he visited Tuscany and Venice, where he painted "Christ and two angels" (ibid; first - C. Santa Maria della brown-TA). His departure from Italy coincided with the death of the Duke of Federico (1482); in 1483 he decorates with frescoes of the "Sagrario" of the Cathedral of Toledo (destroyed in the sixteenth century). Among his mural compositions are preserved only two scenes from "Life of St. Peter" (Toledo Cathedral, the chapel of St. Peter). Immediately after returning from Urbino Berruguete created the painting "the Annunciation" for the Carthusian convent of Miraflores near Burgo-sa, two scenes from "Life of John the Baptist" for TS. Santa Maria del Campo and the song "Mass of St. Gregory" for the Cathedral in Toledo. In these works, the artist faithfully reproduces the Italian Renaissance nye kannelirovannye pilasters and a tympanum in the form of shells and spatial and light composition of Piero della Francesca. For three churches in Paredes de Nava, he writes large panels: "SV. Peter Martyr" (parish Museum TS. Santa Eulalia), two scenes from "the history of St. Helena" and "the Miracle of the Holy cross" (C. John the Baptist), and "the Altar of the virgin" (C. Santa Eulalia). "The altar of the virgin" (Becerril de Campos, TS. Santamaria) marks a new stage in the creative evolution of Berruguete, which is increasingly moving away from Italian memories and refers to Gothic forms. Scenes are arranged in a limited space, the expression of the characters is more realistic. To this period belong three scenes from "Life of Mary" (Palencia, Bishop's Palace) and "the Miracle of St. Cosmas and Damia-" (Covarrubias, a panel). Later, the artist works for the monastery of Santo tomás in Avila main altar is dedicated to St. Thomas, monumental figures delineated with sharp contours. The same features are typical for "the Altar of the Passions" (ávila Cathedral), for which the artist received a fee in 1499. He has also created a "Flagellation of Christ" and eight figures at the base of the external part of the altar (after the death of Berruguete the altar was graduated from Santa Cruz and Juan de Borgoña). Berruguete also belong to the ten scenes from "Life of St. Dominic and Peter" for the monastery of Santo tomás in Ávila (now Madrid, Prado). Master large altarpiece, Berruguete rarely created small-scale works ("Madonna and child", private collection and Palencia Cathedral). In the early sixteenth century Palencia was one of the major art centers of Spain, and a masters (Master of Becerril and Master of Portillo) followed in the footsteps of Berruguete.

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