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Andreevich Tropinin


About 1798 was sent to St. Petersburg in training to the confectioner, however, having a natural flair and passion for drawing, secretly began to study at the St. Petersburg Academy of arts in C. S. Shchukin. In 1804 was withdrawn his landlord he was ordered to go to Ukraine, Podillya, in a new estate of count carrot. Until 1821 lived mainly in Ukraine, where wrote a lot from nature, then moved to Moscow together with the family Markovych.

In 1823 at the age of 47 years, the artist finally gets free.

From 1833 Tropinin volunteer working with students opened in Moscow public art class. In 1843 he was elected honorary member of the Moscow art society.

Biography Vasily Tropinin, obeying the laws of the romantic era, is folded into a coherent story - a story of talent that through perseverance and hard work coming through the most adverse circumstances.

The testimonies of those who had known him draw artist man kind, sympathetic and sensitive. It is an impression of his personality is fully consistent with the impression, borned of his art. Portraits Tropinin easily recognized by complacent expression inherent in his character. He gave his heroes own peace and goodwill.

Vasily Tropinin was born on March 30, in 1780 (1776) year in the village of Karpovka in Novgorod province in a serf of count A.S. Munnich. He later came into the possession of the count I.I. carrot as part of the dowry for his daughter Munnich, Natalia. His father, managing the count, for faithful service received his freedom, but without children. Tropinin a boy visited in Novgorod city school, and then, when a talent for drawing became apparent, he was given a confectioner in the house of count Zavadovsky in St. Petersburg.

The move to St Petersburg had to Tropinin of great importance. After numerous requests carrot agreed to determine to study painting of his talented serf. The Imperial Academy of arts could not cause to visit academic classes serf as "outsiders", irregular students students. Tropinin was drawing classes and entered the workshop of portrait painting, which was headed by S. Shchukin. It is indicative that in 1810 years in the portrait class Shchukin students and pensioners were asked the following topics: "the return of the warrior to his family", "Russian peasant wedding", "Russian peasant dance" and "Divination on the cards". Thus, Shchukin has directed his disciples to accurate transmission of scenes of people's life. In the workshop Shchukin were also laid stylistic and technical basis of painting Tropinin. Being a serf, Tropinin lived in the house of the teacher, rubbed him paint, stretched and primed canvases. Hence a certain similarity palette artists. Favorite Tropin mapping reddish-ochre tones with deep olive green and light blue-gray brings to mind one of the best works of Russian painting at the turn of XVIII and XIX centuries, self - Portrait Shchukin.

According to the testimony of Nicholas Ramazanova, for the first time addressing the biography of the artist, Tropinin "the softness of his character and constant love of art soon acquired a friendly location and respect were at that time in view of the best students of the Academy: Kiprensky, Warnecke, Skotnikov". He was willing, Professor of the Academy. On the academic exhibition in 1804, his painting "Boy, yearning about before his dead bird, which was written on the painting the Painter, was seen by the Empress herself. About Tropinin talked about as a "Russian Dream". This painter Tropinin copied and quoted a lifetime. The Frenchman J.-Baptiste Greuze was then in Russia is very popular. The Russian audience was impressed sentimental sensuality of his works.

Being a student of the Academy, Tropinin got the opportunity to join the world culture. The Academy of arts had a considerable collection of paintings by Western European masters. The students also copied from the paintings that were in the Imperial Hermitage. Collate Tropinin was possible to analyze the prevailing interest to Dutch and Flemish masters Rembrandt, Jordaens, the Teniers. If Gresham Tropinin was shared sentimentalists enlightenment worldview inherent to both of them., in the works of Dutch and Flemish he found support for its orientation, the searches in the field of the genre.

He studied brilliantly and soon won silver and gold medals. As a student at the Academy, Tropinin was in the center of artistic life in St. Petersburg. In addition to Shchukin, he communicated with Egorov, Shebuyev, Andrey Ivanov, Ugryumov and Dean.

Shchukin said the count Morkov about the success of his serf, and that... withdrew Tropinin from the Academy. He was ordered to go to Ukraine, Podolia in the new estate Markovych. The count was needed serf artist, manor painter, and not one of the best portrait painters of the era, which he eventually became. The knowledge that Tropinin was released from the Academy, was different from the regular academic program. In his early drawings can be concluded that he had not studied anatomy, little visited classes of drawing from life, not a master of perspective and the art of composition. The lack of academic education Tropinin overcame many years. Early work Tropinin very unevenly.

In the estate Markovich Vasily was given to understand that he is only a fortress, and was appointed pastry chef and waiter. In addition, his duty was to perform copies of paintings by Western European and Russian artists, decorating later the house carrot, to paint the local Church and write the icons for it, and also to work on the family gallery of portraits of their owners.

The subsequent twenty years, with small breaks, Tropinin has lived in Ukraine, in the estate of the carrot Kukavka. Gentle and kind by nature, Vasily Tropinin humbly endured the vicissitudes of fate, not hardened, not depressed from the consciousness of discrepancy of their own talents and to the position that he has held, on the contrary, took stay in Ukraine as a continuation of the training, a kind of apprenticeship. "I have not studied at the Academy, but has learned in little Russia: I'm there without rest painted from life, and these are my work, it seems the best so far I have written," he recalled later.

Among the works of this period are preserved group portrait of the family Markovych (1813), sketches from Ukrainian lads and older peasants, image rural wedding. The beauty of the national Ruthenian type captured it, somewhat idealized, in pictures "Ukrainian girl with Podillya" (1800s), "a Boy with a Hornpipe" (1810), "Ukrainian with a stick", "Spinner" (both the 1820) and others Aiming to create a lively, relaxed images, the artist says the purity and integrity of the people's characters. The colour of these works is soft, muffled - dominated grayish, ochre and green tones.

Images of peasants, household folk scenes known and in the XVIII century. However, these were episodic phenomena; they had no national traditions and perceived by contemporaries with a touch of the exotic. Only in the XIX century on the basis of the peasant theme begins to be approved permanent, developing direction of the Russian art. The strengthening of this trend in the second half of 1820-ies connected with the work of A. G. Venetsianov, and then his disciples. Tropinskiy cycle immediately precedes venecianskom. And as Venetsianov was opened by the society of the national character and life of Russian people, so Tropinin opened people and nature Ruthenia, this "Russian Italy", according to contemporaries. Far more modest in all respects work Tropinin has had such an obvious influence on future Russian painting, as Venetsianov, however, the artist behind the same progressive direction, connected with the image of national life. Further development of the it received in the mainstream of the realistic art of the XIX century.

Traces of active work on Ukrainian themes detects graphics Tropinin. In his watercolors and drawings 1810s - the beginning of 1820-ies there are images of women in the Ukrainian costume, hunchback violinist, adolescents, shepherds, Ukrainian peasants. Best genre sketches of the artist - "the Reapers" and "the magistrate judge" is also connected with Ukraine.

Preserved picturesque sketch of the scene of the harvest and two preparatory pencil sketch to it. The artist managed to convey the significance of peasant labour. The idea immediately preceding picture Venetsianov "In the harvest. Summer", imbued with the same epic mood.

In 1807, under the direction of Vasily Andreevich was completed Kukavtsi Church. At its consecration Tropinin was married to Anna Lena, free poslanci, which was not afraid to marry: for the serf artist. In love and harmony they lived for nearly fifty years.

Patriotic war of 1812 changed peace kukavtsi life. "On 6 August by the silence of Salviati (property of carrot in four versts from Kukavka) was violated Zaliasis under the arc bell," writes Ramazanov. Arrived from Petersburg state messengers announced the order of Alexander I, who at the choice of the Moscow nobility was appointed carrot head of the Moscow militia. Earl immediately left Kukavka, and their goods ordered Tropin be taken to Moscow by train. Serf artist went after the count and long wandered in war-torn Russia Tropinin was among the first inhabitants, signed in Moscow after the fire. In the summer of 1813 returned home militia Efforts Tropinin Moscow house Markovich was ready to receive the hosts, However, during the fire in it burned all there were the works of the artist

Before Tropin faced the task to restore the painted decoration of the house after the war, he wrote two large group portrait of the family Markovich and several sketches to them.In the portrait, traditionally Dating back to 1813, depicts a graph Irakli Ivanovich carrot, his sons Irakli and Nicholas, his daughter Natalya and Faith, and music teacher of Bochetti Jr. Irakli and Nikolay - with military awards and General N. N. Raevsky, carrot took with him to the war of the sons, the youngest of whom - Nicholas - just turned fourteen years old. Great composition seems to be a family again gathered after the ordeal and separation In the film combines the war remnants and the traditional feel of a noble house.

In the created simultaneously with painting etudes "Portrait of Countess Natalia Iraclievna Markovoy" (1813) and "Portrait of Nicholas Iraklievich and Irakli of irakliyevich Markovich" (1810), the artist did not put before itself a complex composite tasks. Written easily, freely and enthusiastically, studies, however, more than the finished works, give a picture of the work Tropinin those years Portrait of Natalia Markovoy is one of the most inspired works of the artist. The face of the young Countess wrong with features inherent in the extraordinary charm of Spirituality model is transferred the whole system works. The surface of the canvas saves quivering motion of the brush. This sketch, a masterpiece of Tropinin, stands alone in his work. It has a picturesque natural freshness and demonstrates spiritual and artistic maturity of the wizard.

In the spirit elegiac poetry Zhukovsky written "Boy with a pipe Portrait Irakli carrot" (1810). In the portrait leads mood melancholy meditations. Landscape, as it often happens in romantic poetry, explains the internal state of the hero. In the picturesque style and portrait concept Tropinin in 1810-s retains many features of the art of the XVIII century Rococo gamma softened in more colors, with a predominance of gold tone, soft mobile-brush, transparent, flickering texture. The portraits of young men brothers Markovich is a masterpiece of early works of the artist - "Portrait of Arseniy Tropinin" (approx. 1818). Children were particularly attractive. The most part of children's portraits, genre has booked. It depicts children with animals, birds, toys, musical instruments. The obvious connection of the children's portraits Tropinin with the traditions of the XVIII century, with sentimentalists-educational direction in philosophy. Educators believed the mind of a child tabula raza ("clean slate"), explaining many of the vices of the society by the absence of a reasonable system of education. "Portrait of Arseniy Tropinin alike with sincerity and purity of emotions, written and easily generalized. Exquisite flavor based on the combination of Golden-brown tones. Through the layer of paint and glaze of the legs are pinkish tone of soil and underpainting.

Special technical and x-ray investigations of Tropinin showed that throughout the creativity he adhered to the traditional academic structure of the whole picture and its fine layer, which included the original pencil drawing, handwriting or study grisaille, re propisi and glaze. However, many artists were blocked by painting the ground and grisillo development, while at Tropinin "in General picturesque layer is very thin, all layers from the surface to the final glazing work on the light. It is interesting to compare the findings of L. N. Alievoy investigating the painting for Shchukin. "Toned soil and the initial gasilina study, which the majority of artists was considered as a preparatory stage for the subsequent main job and almost completely covered under a layer of colorful and glazes, Shchukin constantly play an active role in the beautiful structure of the canvas. Ochre-yellow, orange, pink or yellow-brown tone of the soil and underpainting keenly felt under a wide energetic stroke, ... and sound almost openly under a sliding touch of the brush, revealing details." The similarity is obvious. It remains to add that Tropinin, applying in most works of two-layer soils, adds to the filler of the lower layer ocher. Shining through thin top layer, it tells the ground Golden, yellowish or reddish tint. As Shchukin, it gives a natural warmth color tropinina works.

Years from 1813 to 1818-th were very fruitful for the artist. Moscow came to after Napoleon's invasion. In the middle of the 1810s years he posed publisher P.P. Beketov, conceived a series of engraved portraits of famous Russian figures. Then his portrait Tropin orders the famous in Moscow poet I.I. Dmitriev. These early portraits, belt on a neutral background, back to the traditions of the Russian chamber portrait of XVIII century. Gradually the circle of customers Tropinin expanding. He writes portraits of heroes of the Patriotic war generals I.I. Alexeev, A.P. Urusova, FI Talyzina, P.I. Bagration.

In 1821 Tropinin forever goodbye to Kukavka. Return to Moscow was happy for him. Presently, in Moscow, respect and popularity, the artist nonetheless remained a serf, which caused surprise and discontent in enlightened circles of nobility. Particularly fussed over Tropinin A.A. Tuchkov - General, the hero of 1812 and collector, P.P. Svinyin, N.A. Maikov. However, count carrot in no hurry to give freedom to his serf painter, talent and human qualities which he really enjoyed. It was only in 1823. Wife and son Tropinin Arseniy remained in serfdom for another five years.

With the support of Shchukin and publisher Svinyin, repeatedly helped the artist, Tropinin in September 1823 presented their work to the Board of the St. Petersburg Academy of arts, and soon was awarded the title assigned to the Academy" for paintings "Lacemaker", "Poor old man" and "portrait of the engraver EO Skotnikov".

In these early works, Tropinin, continues the line of the Ukrainian period, rooted in the traditions of the Russian academic art of the XVIII century. Especially clearly this kind of link is shown in the image of "the old Beggar".

"Lacemaker" (1823) - one of the most popular works Tropinin. The pretty girl, making lace, depicted in the moment when she momentarily pulled away from work and turned his gaze to the audience, which thus becomes involved in the space of the painting. Carefully and lovingly painted still life - laces box for needlework. A sense of peace and comfort, created Tropin, convinces values every moment of daily human life. The aesthetic tastes of the time in this case happily coincided with the features of talent of the artist, poetically perceiving life.

Similar paintings Tropinin wrote a lot. Usually they depict young women's needlework - zolotoshveyki, embroiderers, Praha. Their faces are similar, they are clearly visible features of the female ideal artist - delicate oval, dark almond-shaped eyes, a friendly smile, a Flirty look. Images craftswomen 1820-1830 years testify to the evolution of artistic manners Tropinin. From the picturesque style of the early works he comes to linearly-plastic, with sharper contour and body overprinting. Beautiful texture gains density. Small, tightly required strokes make pictures like miniatures in the technique of enamel. "Lace" is made in the refined tones bluish-grayish tones, "the gold-seamstress" (1826) color solution more actively.

Speaking about the idealized solution tropinina female characters, we must bear in mind the fact that the aesthetic tastes of the time in this case happily coincided with the feature of talent of the artist, who took the life is not critical, as poetically, not denounced, as claimed. That's why the work in his work appears not as exhausting the required lesson, and how happy side of life, in which reveals wonderful qualities of the female nature.

However, creating portraits of men-types, Tropinin more clearly reflects the reality. Here involuntarily affected by a deep understanding of the common people, the environment, where he went himself. That is why the images of Russian peasants ("Old peasant", 1825; "coachman, based on a whip", the 1820; ' Peasant obtrusively crutch", 1834; "wanderer", 1847), the artist sometimes paid more attention and heat than its fashionable "heroes".

Among his male images special love contemporaries enjoyed a truly national type "guitarist". The same works put "Guitarist in the shirt. Portrait carrot" (first half of the 1820s). Carrot presented at the time of execution of romance in stage costume, repeating people's clothes. But in its essence it is a truly national image, which today is perceived rather than portrait, and typical image akin to "the Lace", "the gold-seamstress", "the Driver..." And in this deep social, historical truth images Tropinin, expressing a whole an epoch in the life of Russian society.

In 1824 for the "Portrait medalist K.A. of Leberecht" Tropinin was found by academician of portrait painting. The Council of the Academy of arts offered him to stay in St. Petersburg and to take the position of Professor. But cold bureaucratic Petersburg and the prospect of official services are not attracted by the artist. That Tropinin chose Moscow, contributed to some important factors. And purely personal in Moscow's family lived its former owner of count I. carrot, fortified which remained the wife and son of the artist, and clearly evident Tropin sense of freedom, which gave him the Moscow life, and also new to the artistic life of Russia the artist's efforts to secure an independent professional position. Art in Russia was always a matter of state. The Imperial Academy of arts was distributing government orders, "pensionerstvo" and subsidies and determined the fate of artists.Tropinin, of course, living in Moscow exclusively by private orders, won the fame of one of the best portrait, create an independent position, which had very few Russian artists. Vasily Andreevich was held in the Moscow cultural life that niche, which before him was empty, and became the most famous Moscow portraitist, reflected in the images of his contemporaries and harmony, and inconsistency in Moscow.

Living and working in Moscow, Tropinin did not participate in academic exhibitions and as a result remained almost not noticed by the critics, mainly related to the Academy and its shows. However, this circumstance does not prevent its recognition. He was famed best portraitist as customers, and professionals. Karl Brullov, refusing to paint portraits of Muscovites said, "you have your own excellent artist".

In the works of the Moscow period of the previous intimacy image is replaced by the attention and the characteristic of models, sculptural clarity of forms. The coloring becomes rich, sonorous, artist effectively uses color shade.

In Moscow Tropinin settled in the house Pisareva on Lenivka, near the Big Stone bridge. Here in his Studio, and he wrote the famous portrait of A.S. Pushkin. Early in 1827 Pushkin ordered Tropin portrait for a gift to his friend Sobolevskoe. In this portrait of the artist with the most clearly expressed his ideal of a free man. He wrote Pushkin in a Bathrobe with open collar shirt and carelessly tied tie-scarf. Tropinskiy Pushkin's not down-to-earth he is so Regal and majestic, that seems impossible to disturb his thoughts. Special impressive, almost monumental inform the image of the poet proud bearing and sustainable posture, making his home Bathrobe like ancient ceremonial robes.

This portrait was strange fate. It was made multiple copies, and the original was lost and only appeared many years later. It was bought in the Moscow exchange shop Director of the Moscow archive of the Ministry of foreign Affairs M.A. Obolenskii, which Tropinin wrote when he was a child. The artist was asked to confirm the authenticity of the portrait and to update it, since it was badly damaged. But Tropinin refused, saying, "what does not dare to touch features, taken from nature and, moreover, young hands", and only brushed it.

In 1830-1840-ies account for the greatest number of portraits, written Tropin. About the artist said he rewrote "literally the entire city of Moscow". He had a broad and diverse range of customers. Here and the first persons in the urban hierarchy, the people of the state, private individuals - noblemen, merchants, and spiritually close Tropin actors, writers, artists. Among them are "the Portrait of S. Kushnikova" (1828) - the former military Governor of Moscow, member of the Board of the Moscow educational house, and "Portrait of S.M. Golitsyn" (after 1828) - "the last of the Moscow grandees", Trustee of the Moscow school district, Chairman of the Board of Trustees. Prince Golitsyn loved Tropinin and supported him. The same relations of patronage and respectful friendship was connected with the artist A.A. tychkovym. Gradually fame Tropinin becomes very broad. For execution of orders, he was invited to the Society of lovers of agriculture, Skakovaya society. He wrote also the portraits of famous actors of the Maly theater M.S. Shchepkin, PS Mochalova, actor Petersburg "of Alexandrinka" V.A. Karatygin.

A significant portion of the customers of the artist was Moscow merchants, which were close to tropinskiy sober and thoughtful look at the model, the ability to emphasize the dignity of the individual. The family of a merchant often gallery was created in imitation of the noble, but in many ways reflected the tastes of your environment. Tropinin painted portraits of members of the merchant dynasties Kiselev, Karzinkina, Maturing, Sapozhnikovy. "Portrait of H. Korzinkina" (after 1839) is designed as the front. Merchant's wife depicted in stylized Russian costume and kokoshnik. In 1830-1840-ies Russian folk costume was in great fashion. At the court of Nicholas I was balls in the Russian style. At the ceremonial event with the presence of members of the Royal family of a merchant's wife had to be in folk costumes. In the portrait of Karzinkina the artist expressed his usual sensual perception of the world. He lovingly passes the sheen of silk, the transparency of the veil, the beauty of gold embroidery, shimmering pearls on matte skin. In this portrait Tropinin allocated those features feminine ideal, which by that time already had in his genre works. Also typical Portrait E.V. Mazurino" (1844), solved simply, without any accessories on a neutral background. Her face lit by the direct light, sculptured very vigorously. Minimal means the artist creates the image of a strong, confident woman.

Peace of life in Moscow was disturbed by the arrival of Karl Pavlovich Briullov in December 1835. Lunch in honor of the famous painter staged at the Moscow art class, an art lover and collector Yegor Ivanovich Makovsky, sculptor Ivan Vitali. Makovsky and brought into the workshop of Bryullov Tropinin. Ramazanov says: "Carl Brullov, amazed at the old man with unusual clarity of mind, fresh memory of all the past, warmth and refreshing Outlook on art and amazing about it talk, love Tropinin soul and rare day not visited him. Not once and that was invited to a sumptuous lunch aristocrat, Bryullov changed this word came to share at the table of Vasiliy Andreevich simple cabbage soup and porridge". Bryullov appreciated art and human charm of the first Moscow portraitist. And Tropinin was delighted with his famous fellow craft. Communication with Karl Pavlovich not passed to him without a trace the Influence of Karl Briullov swept through the whole of Russian art 1830-1840-ies. The Tropinin also works appear large in size with all the techniques and accessories of the great ceremonial portrait. In the portrait of the Bryullov (1836) artistic originality of the artist Tropinin emphasizes the lush backdrop of ancient ruins, twined vines, steaming Vesuvius. "Portrait P.N. Zubov" (end of 1830s) song almost exactly repeats the "Portrait of A. Perovsky"written Bryullov in 1836 in Moscow. However, the comparison of these portraits is not in favor of Tropinin, which is not quite managed to cope with a large portrait form. (At the same time, "Portrait of A.A. Perovskiy" in a Bathrobe at the window could be written Bryullov under the influence of Moscow impressions, and in particular from the works of Tropinin). Especially unusual for Tropinin conditionally romantic stat Teeth looks away, not communicating with the audience.

The artist always had a very good attitude to their models. He wrote to people in a good mood, in the best moments of their life. Tropinin believed that the portrait is written in the century, in memory of descendants and should identify the merits and not the bad person. "Who loves in life to look angry, gloomy person? Why to transfer to the canvas unpleasant, which will remain unchanged, why make a bad impression, to arouse painful memories in loving this man? Let them see it and remember the happy age of life," he said.

Impressed by the painting Bryullov's also written a portrait of the famous Slavophile Û.F. Samarin in the costume of a hunter, against the background landscape with the stormy sky and swirling clouds (1846). But the overall romantic idea Tropinin relieves, thoughtfully looking at the real features of the model, looking in the face of Russian philosopher, historian, publicist a reflection of the rich spiritual and intellectual life. And in this quest, the nature of talent Tropinin is the greatest extent consonant with new aspirations of the era - the artist is interested not just an exceptional personality, and man, really existing in the offered conditions, not interesting entourage, in and of itself.

In the second half of the 1830s-1840s years Tropinin writes a number of group portraits. Interest to a group portrait of the time were other artists O. Kiprensky, F. Tolstoy. A brilliant master of a group portrait was Karl Brullov. Tropinskiy "Portrait FS Mosolova with employees stables" (end of 1830s) and "Portrait D.P. Voeikov with her daughter and governess, miss Forty" (1842) is a genre scenes of three figures depicted in the conditionally transferred to the interior with a window General solution of portraits dates back to representative portrait of XVIII century. The interior space is not included in the figurative structure works. Details - view, horse icon on the window sill in the portrait Voeikov - explain the interests of the persons depicted Winter landscape is perceived as an allegory of the end of life.

Later works V.A. Tropinin marked by the desire for the transfer of greater complexity and depth of the image, to the comprehension of the personality of a person. This is different "Portrait of A.A. Tuchkov" (1843). Artist peers into the face of his guardian, collector and friend writes a tiny dash face, trying for the outer shell to see his complex spiritual world. Tropinin perfectly conveys the canvas age-related features of the model. "Portrait of an unknown with a pipe" (1840-1850) is one of the best late works of the artist. Tropinin creates a vivid image of a man of exceptional intelligence and powerful temperament. Energetic modeling of the face, proud bearing, insightful, cherishing bitterness opinion demonstrate the complex fate of this man. Tense game of light and shadow gives the portrait a sense of mystery and romance. Psychology and dramatic power of this portrait is so different from the peaceful and harmonious images of other works Tropinin that it is possible to assume, if the "unknown" dictated true to the model, the artist depth of his portrait image.

In later portraits - F Protasova and H.E. Protasovo (1840s), E.A.She (1852), Levitskaya-Volkonskaya (?) (1852) Tropin managed to achieve a rare harmony sober objectivity with narration about domestic environments models. Paired portraits Protasevich solved as ceremonial.

In the 1840-ies Tropinin increasingly thinking about the end of life. Protasova and Levitskaya-Volkonsky is depicted on the background of the Kremlin. In these portraits Tropinin especially attentive to the objective world. The image of man is revealed through the subject environment, things that surround it. The artist writes lovingly texture of fabrics, velvet, fur, satin, lace Cheptsov and collars. Conditional romantic landscape changes calm realistic, being in full communion with the environment and with the objective of the transfer of the external appearance of the model. At the same time these portraits perfectly reflect the style of the epoch - interiors, typical Biedermeier, where every thing exists by itself, but creates an atmosphere of comfort and coziness.

Harmony is achieved Tropin in his later portraits, did not go unnoticed by his contemporaries. "High dignity brush Tropinin not leave neglected the latter aspect of the field. The distant horizon, a tree, a flower laying at hand book, carved furniture, the variety of fabrics, fluffy fur - all is strict, charming loyalty... But amazing that with all this ocenennoy whole situation view Tropinin is that the main subject does not cease to dominate the picture and yet separated from the frame, without looking from her as from the open window," - wrote "Moskvitin" in 1849.

In 1840-1850-ies Tropinin more often, than earlier, represents and repeats the image of older women - "the old Woman that'll cut nails" (1850), "For mending linen" (1852), "the old Woman with chicken" (1856). As a rule, the model for these paintings was the artist's wife Anna Ivanovna. These images are linked reflections Tropinin about old age, fleeting life. They cause a painful sense of pity, but at the same time create a sense of peace, humility before the eternal, and unchangeable order of being. Tropinin very grieved at the death of his wife in 1855; from the apartment to the striker Assembly, where they lived for more than thirty years, has moved in Zamoskvorechye.

In men's portraits-types in 1840-1850-ies Tropinin is very close to a critical understanding of reality through a true demonstration of disadvantaged people. The image of the old soldiers, Wanderers like images of the then realistic school.

In later portraits Tropinin it is necessary to note his ability to convey the "specificity" of each life type. They have a special value because of sampling accuracy social stereotypes of Russian society of the middle of XIX century and the depth of their recreation have no analogies in the Russian art of his time.

Tropinin was at the forefront of the whole of an independent direction in Russian art, associated with attentive, serious analysis of the national character. This trend has developed in the second half of the XIX century in the works of the Wanderers. The direct successor Tropinin was there Century, Perov. In his "the Wanderer" and "Fomushka-Sych" developed artistic analysis of the qualities of ordinary people who first described in tropinina "servants", "the Wanderers", "old soldiers". A deeper understanding of people's character got I. N. Kramskoy, the artist, who had acute social sensitivity and civil liability.

The merits of Vasiliy Andreevich Tropinin in front of the Russian fine art did not go unnoticed. In 1843 he has received official recognition - the Moscow art society elected him an honorary member for "zealous assistance for the benefit and prosperity of Society and the school, he composed". This Society was established in 1833 by the efforts of artists and art lovers, and because of the "enlightened sympathy private persons". Its Chairman was the Moscow Governor-General Prince D.V. Golitsyn. Close Tropin people - artists E. Makovsky, F. Kuehnel, K. Rabus, sculptor I. Vitali - were the founders of the Company. Officially, the teacher of school Tropinin was not, however, he often attended drawing classes, helped the young artists with advice and enjoyed among them great authority.

Among tropinina self-portraits (1810-e, 1824, 1830) the most symbolic "self-Portrait with brush and palette against the window with views of the Kremlin" (1844). The self-portrait was painted by the order of Society. It Tropinin not only announces his life's calling, but argues creative credo true Russian artist, not by chance, he shows himself against the Kremlin, ancient national monument. Vasily Andreevich has depicted himself in a working robe, with brushes and palette. The artist is an open face, which features a man of great inner force that has been able to perform their mission and remained faithful to the art, despite all the troubles of their own destiny.

Vasiliy Andreevich Tropinin lived a long creative life. His art were in the intense interaction with the aesthetic ideals of the age. Being "the last son of the XVIII century", in the end, he caught the main trends in the middle of the XIX century - the faithfulness to the nature, analytical view of the world - and has come close to the critical realism of the second half of the century. He died on may 3, 1857, he was buried at the Vagankovskoye cemetery.


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