Biography and informationEdit
Russian painter, landscape painter. He studied at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture of I. I. Shishkin and V. D. Polenov. Worked in the tradition of late-night Wanderers. Developed national landscapes, typical motif of Russian nature. Founding member of the Union of Russian Artists. Member of the Association of traveling Art Exhibitions (1893-1901), the Moscow Association of Artists (1893, 1899), etc. Represented in the collections of the State Tretyakov Gallery, State Russian Museum and in private collections.
Vasily Perepletchikov had a sharp mind, observation, and was undoubtedly a bright gifted. His ability in various fields of visual art (he studied painting and graphics), literature (he wrote prose and poetry), his energy and initiative in the dispensation of the artistic life (he organized exhibitions, participated in the creation of new associations, etc.) did not allow him to stay on one thing to devote himself to his chosen occupation of the most purposeful and full. The impression that he can be not even sought to make its interests in any part of the rational expression. It held everything: new currents in painting, and the opportunity to prove himself as acercate, and the implementation of such eternal dream of man as a desire to travel.
In each area, which V. V. Perepletchikov was doing, he was well known, and at the same time, in the late XIX — early XX century were artists, writers, travelers more authoritative, glorified themselves cases much more significant. However, it may be none of them possessed a range of talents, the desire of varied accomplishments, who was endowed with Bookbinders is one of the most prominent participants in the artistic life of pre-revolutionary period, is an representative of Russian (and especially Moscow) culture of the time.
Life Vasily perepletchikova was originally awarded the Moscow tradition. He was born in a merchant family. Initial education Vasily Perepletchikov received Practical Academy of commercial Sciences.
While in the Academy, he felt the inclination to the arts and started taking private lessons from peredvizhnika A. A. Kiseleva. After that he entered the School of painting, sculpture and architecture, where he studied architecture.
Familiarity with I. I. Shishkin makes perepletchikova again to change occupation. Leaving architecture, he devotes himself entirely to the visual arts, testing their capabilities in drawing and painting. His life the student (and later too) time – pay attention to it – unlike most of his colleagues on the art were financially prosperous, and in the early catalogues of the exhibitions it (rare for a young artist) indicated permanent address: "Against Awska gate, Glodowski stalled, own house". This independent position, it would seem, should facilitate his lesson chosen profession, but it may be more likely to interfere Perepletchikova in the realization of their artistic possibilities. He then in a fit of different Hobbies never tired of myself to try other areas. And not without success, as was undoubtedly gifted.
"A famous artist"
Turning to visual art, Bookbinders moving closer to Moscow artistic environment of their peers, the past, and he school the School of painting, sculpture and architecture. It was A. E. Arkhipov, S. A. Vinogradov, S. V. Ivanov, N.. Klodt, K. A. Korovin, I. I. Levitan, as Stepanov and some other artists and Bookbinders will work next to, and later to create a new exhibition organizations.
Initial professional interests perepletchikova were converted to graphics. In 1880 – 90-ies he devotes a lot of time drawing, studying different techniques of graphic art (pastel, charcoal, pen, pencil, lithography, watercolor), is involved together with S. V. Ivanov in the activity of drawing classes (1888).]
The craze of graphics among colleagues perepletchikova was so great that they've even been started "Periodical publication of drawings of Russian artists" . In the first, published in this series, album (1886) placed the drawings of S. V. Ivanov, S. A. Korovin, I. I. Levitan, V. A. Sims, A. S. Stepanov, etc. Bookbinders also participated in it — he showed lithograph "Kama from Drunken forest". Five years later, in 1891, Bookbinders released an independent album of landscape drawings (pen, charcoal, pencil), evidence of careful study of creativity of I. I. Shishkin. The album was noticed. About it wrote: "the interest content of ... of drawings is that they present us with a very accurately characterized the parties of the nature of our Central location. In many drawings felt a definite taste of the artist and the ability to grasp the characteristic features of the landscape." During these years, Binders, together with A. A. Kiselev, N.. Klodt, L. O. Pasternak, A. S. Stepanov and I. I. Shishkin takes part in the art Moscow magazine of fine arts and literature "Actor" and performs drawings in a literary anthology (1892), etc.
However, the main place in his work holds a heavy figure. Experiences of their studies in this area Bookbinders regularly exhibits at the exhibitions organized in the two capitals of St. Petersburg Society of Russian watercolorists, Moscow Society of lovers of the arts. From time to time he increases the number of exhibited works, and in 1898 at the exhibition of watercolors, pastels and drawings Bookbinders presented more than ten drawings. In this activity the contemporaries saw not only the hard work of one artist. One of the most severe critics of modern art of S. P. Diaghilev to write about perepletchikova "River Prorva" (1898): "it is worthy of attention, first as a representative of the new Moscow landscape areas with talented Levitan headed — and, second, on their individual merits." This impression was not accidental. Three years later, artist and critic M. M., Malkevich will allocate a different landscape – "Autumn on the Volga" ("the strongest impression") and say that Bookbinders, as well as I. I. Levitan, S. Y. Zhukovsky, A. S. Stepanov, "the poet subtly perceives the often elusive moods of nature, sensitive, responsive and able to convey their subjective feelings to others simply and freely".
In parallel with graphics Binders easel painting. He travels with I. I. Levitan in Savvinskaya Sloboda near Zvenigorod, S. A. Vinogradov in Plyos on the Volga, etc. It is still extremely functional ("but we write with him, he told Vinogradov, — I lost right").
Perepletchikova creativity of the artist was not indifferent to his contemporaries. For example, in 1896 Levitan will inform A. V. Vasnetsov, Bookbinders "bad etudes has worked". Alexander Benois, a few years later, noting the work of perepletchikova and some Muscovites followers Levitan, will say that their views "will be appreciated over time, as countless and cute "the small Dutch".
About works perepletchikova not only write criticism, they reproduce in magazines and especially in the "art World" magazine, which is so sensitive to the emergence of a "new wave" in Russian painting. The artist's works were purchased by "Sam" P. M. Tretyakov bought "himself" S. P. Diaghilev. Perepletchikova landscapes adorned the workshop of I. I. Levitan, the apartments of S. A. Vinogradov, A. M. Korin. A clear sign of the popularity perepletchikova, I think, was that his 90-ies portray, S. V. Ivanov (1885-1890), V. A. Serov (1897), A. M. Korin (1898), A. S. Golubkina (1899).
And if in those years Alexander Benois is not without reason introduced the idea of a certain according to perepletchikova from Levitan, then in the beginning of the twentieth century Grabar celebrates that aspect: Bookbinders becomes "independent artist". By this time in his work is indicated by a certain thematic changes.
In 1902, V. V. Perepletchikov, together with the S. A. Vinogradov for the first time, take a trip on the Arkhangelsk North. Seen produces an indelible impression on him: "the nature of the severe and majestic, full of creepy delights, and unsolved mysteries. The sun in this country shines throughout the day, so to lose in the end time. Not day, not night. In the vast ocean haunted by the mirages, make it seem as antediluvian animals, and the soul unwittingly crawls mystical horror." This trip influenced the rest of his life perepletchikova. And especially in his pictorial works. Year after year he goes on the Arkhangelsk North, writes a lot, draws, exposing dozens of established works, combining them in series, then it was a phenomenon quite unusual. Such, for example, his series: "North. Arkhangelsk province", "North. New earth". In addition, he showed a series of works: "Endangered parts of the city of Moscow", "Central Russia", etc. But the main theme remained the theme of the North. In his landscape drawings and paintings Bookbinders poetically tells us about the North, inhabited by people, shows his village with two-storey high wooden houses, ancient monasteries, calm and sometimes turbulent, rivers (when "around the all too quiet — say once an artist, I can do nothing to feel").
For more than a decade of Binders was systematically shown at exhibitions (mostly of the "Union of Russian artists") and the landscapes that allowed contemporaries to call him "an Enthusiastic singer of the far North". His work was popular. One of them – "On the Dvina gathering storm" (1908) – I. E. Grabar said in 1909 as "a significant picture". This work and the other – "Cherry blossoms" (1915) – the Council of the Tretyakov gallery was acquired in 1916 for his collection. Landscape works perepletchikova in the pre-revolutionary time were purchased by many collectors, among whom we will call D. V. Vysotsky, V. O. flag, N.. Lviv, M. K. Morozov, M. P. Ryabushinsky, K. T. Soldatenkov. This list could be further expanded.
Today, after many decades, researchers considering the development of Russian art of late XIX — early XX centuries constantly mention the name of perepletchikova among those artists who have undertaken one of the most visible areas, called "Moscow school."
"Travel across Russia"
From the first creative years of the Bookbinders detects an enviable "hunting to change of places". He loved to travel. In 1892 Bookbinders reported as Suvorin that "more than half of the year," he spends outside of Moscow. In his works exhibited at the exhibitions in some way to set the routes of movement: the Volga, the Oka and Protva, Kama, Pechora monastery, skerries of Finland, the Urals, etc. In search of subjects, he traveled all over Central Russia up and down. It was not until the early nineties.
The following years of his career were marked by travel to the North. For twelve years (1902 – 1914) annually every summer he went to his favorite places, which once said, "the harsh and inhospitable North, but pulls me to him. Go again to the Arctic ocean, to the big strong men." These trips were hard and dangerous. About visiting New earth in 1913 (from Arkhangelsk there twice a year during the period of navigation is the ship) Bookbinders said: "Beat and buffeted our ship for almost the entire two-week flight. Twelve hours standing under the fog. Around the roaring ocean, the whole fused with a white haze. Steamship alarming whistles and measuring, dying in the empty cover of fog, the ringing of bells on watch".
In his travels in the North, "armed with" a sketchbook and a notebook, he visited the White sea, Northern Dvina, Suhani worked in Arkhangelsk, Ust-Kut, Ust-Pinega, Ochestrate, Korostova, lived in Russian and Krasnogorsky monasteries. On the New earth he attends Outpost "Samoyed" "Beluga lip" where dwelt his disciple Tyko Inverted, reaches the most Northern European settlement, "Olginskaya settlement", trying to find traces of the missing Rusanov expeditions, Sedov, etc. Returning to the mainland, he is engaged in educational work, reading about the North lectures, publishes diary entries made there.
I must say that Bookbinders was not the first artist who visited the Arkhangelsk North. Already in 1894 there was visited by V. V. Vereshchagin, who performed studies on the Northern Dvina. And in the same year went to K. A. Korovin, V. A. Serov ("it was another world, a world of heaven and the peaceful mirror of water... and some incredibly marvelous dream"). Visited the New land in 1896, pupil of A. I. Kuindzhi, A. A. Borisov, since that time, constantly travelling around the North.
For perepletchikova it was not only a "magical land" with their extraordinary nature, but also the land where the triumph of "human energy, entrepreneurial spirit and a love for knowledge that are not afraid of death." Maybe that's why in his paintings and notes the North is inhabited by people, it takes a man's life in the North, its connection with nature. Unlike Borisov, praising "the secret of eternal ice", "North" perepletchikova is inhabited by people, is full of poetry.
"The bard of the Russian North"
The origins of literary activities perepletchikova, apparently, can be seen above all in his "Diary". In the 80-ies of the XIX century he began to make detailed notes of what I had seen. He recorded the events of the artistic life, recounted memorable conversations took place at meetings with the artists, describing the impressions received from exhibitions, presented their reflections about art. In these records Bookbinders discovered the enviable skill of the storyteller, a sharp wit, powers of observation, an ironic look. Unfortunately, in the beginning of the present century Scripture "Diary" they were interrupted. However, what he managed to do, still has undeniable historical and cultural value. No accident to this day researchers studying the artistic life at the turn of XIX and XX centuries, constantly turning to these records, representing the eyewitness testimony of a bygone time, its artists, collectors.
"Diary" was conducted Perepletchikova for themselves. The need for public art in it emerged after trips to the North. And with this experience comes a professional writer. He writes essays "Beyond the Arctic circle" (1909), "the Artist-Samoyed Tyko Inverted" ("the Way", 1912), and the cycle of poems "the New land" (1913), the remaining unreleased, except for one poem "Arctic night" ("Cry", 1915). On the North it reads public lecture "Life beyond the Arctic circle (New earth)" (Moscow, Saratov, 1913, 1914). Moreover, it is on the North book "North. Sketches of Russian life" (1917), which illustrates his work. These essays constitute a genre of domestic scenes depicting the life of the Northern villages and their inhabitants. Curious: Bookbinders almost neglects the description of landscape, his phrase is dynamic, and a characteristic portrait. He is able to engage in dialogue, which always felt social characteristics of people in conversation, the uniqueness of the local dialect. The essays take very accurately described the semantic details. Language of essays simple, clear.
Essays perepletchikova is in form of notes in which the author is always present visibly. He watches what is happening with life ("how many years I go to Russia, and everywhere one and the same picture illuminated by the midday, the midnight sun. The picture of drunkenness, darkness and horror of life"), record the vision, doing the main work for which arrived in the province: "in the light of the white night I draw", "Write in the woods etude", "it Is raining. You can not work" etc and the word captures the nature of the artist. Marks the color: "Very clearly dressed women in the North have issued a whole palette of colors: blue, green, yellow, red among the grey mountains and the pale of nature – very beautiful." Remember: "flying South cloud: white boys with wings, the white figures of women with long hair. It quickly rushed at each other."
Gifted in the literary field Bookbinders was indisputable. It is no coincidence that all his life he was drawn in one form or another, to prose, to poetry, to the literary environment. He was familiar with K. Balmont, A. White, V. J. Brusov, I. A. Bunin, N. D. Those lechevin, T. L. Shhepkinoj-Kupernik, A. I. Ertel and many other writers of his time.
With the end of the XIX century in Moscow and Petersburg perepletchikova knew everything. He was energetic, inquisitive, and inclined to all kinds of "artisanal" beginnings. "Public work" (an expression of V. F. Bulgakov) was one of his major life activities. The same Bulgakov observed, "he Seemed to receive great pleasure from the process hassle and the device of the exhibition". However his work was not limited to exhibition displays. And, of course, everything was done not only for the sake of "the process". A variety of progressive initiatives in artistic life — above all in Moscow — had in his face ardent supporter and a skilful organizer. That's why in the early 1900-ies Bookbinders is one of the Central figures in Moscow, influencing the course of events of artistic life.
For example, in 1900, when the all-powerful Diaghilev wrote Serov in the organization of another exhibition "World of art": "If you see perepletchikova — talk to him about it, can't they (the Muscovites-the supporters of the exhibition of 36 artists — V. L.) to send us (in St. Petersburg) any letter requesting that we left them in Moscow alone."
His business acumen was known to contemporaries and valued them. In 1910, after a break in Moscow and St. Petersburg artists A. P. Ostroumova-Lebedev wrote: "we, after retiring from the Muscovites, lost of the organizers, what were the Bookbinders and Steers".
To the opinion of the artist is listened. His authority for many was undeniable. In 1904, I. E. Grabar, for example, wrote: "Here are the Transporters. Finds that I very well worked." In 1907, wishing to show Perepletchikova his new work, A. S. Golubin asked by I. S. Efimov: "Push, please, in the side of Vasily Vasilyevich, maybe he'll come and look and take in the Union".
If we keep in view only the development of the artistic life of the early twentieth century, not to mention that Bookbinders were among the initiators of such a "secession" of the unions of artists of Moscow, as the "exhibition of 36 artists" and "Union of Russian artists", member-head of which he was from its Foundation until his death actively participated in all its exhibitions. When in the "Union" a conflict between two of the capital's go-delivery, that Bookbinders have been delegated as an envoy to St. Petersburg by Alexandre Benois, to clarify the possibilities for further joint activities. In his public activities are not only professional interests but is undoubtedly elements of citizenship. An example of this can be used for many initiatives, involving Binders for different years. In 1891 th he together with A. Arkhipov, A. and V. Vasnetsova, N. Kasatkin, I. Levitan, V. Polenov and other artists involved in the exhibition of paintings donated "to benefit victims of crop failure", in 1892 — in the edition of the literary collection devoted to "the poor mothers who suffered from scurvy and typhus in the Voronezh province", in 1900 — the collection "to help the victims of the war", etc. In the years of the first world war he was especially active. Bookbinders takes the responsibility of the Chairman of the Commission, "assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers and the families of the spare", involved in many charity exhibitions ("Artists of Moscow — the victims of war", "Artists — fellow soldiers, assist the families of persons enlisted for the war"), auctions and other events, which are then in large number were organized by intellectuals. Favor of his public activities during the war years contemporaries appreciated, and one of them, S. S. Mamontov, wrote from the front: "Here — you know, like a Commission, which is headed by Vasily Perepletchikov and sincerely wish him strength and success in started them."
The same features of civil concern about the General case it is easy to trace in relation to perepletchikova to the development of artistic life in the provincial cities of Russia. Together with A. M. Vasnetsov, M. V. Nesterov, A. A. Silovym he sends to Vyatka their work to help create the art and history Museum (1910), involved sketches and paintings at the exhibition organized in the eagle local society of lovers of fine arts (1912), donates paintings to arise in the Yaroslavl City art gallery (1913). However, the most notable was his role in the development of the artistic life of Moscow. For the past several years (1894-1897), elected to the Committee of the Society of arts, he leads its activities. Later (1907-1916), he was constantly elected to the Committee of the "Union of Russian artists" which was one of the most influential leaders. At the same time in the same years (1914-1917) Bookbinders was one of the Directors of the Literary-artistic circle. He initiated the organization of several exhibitions in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Bookbinders exhibition shows Nenets artist Tyko Vylko and promotes his work on the pages of Newspapers (1912), creates a posthumous exhibition of his colleagues on the "Union of Russian artists" by S. V. Ivanov (1912), does the work of a member of the Commission "acceptance" of Tolstoy's works in the exhibition (1911), is on the Board of the device of the exhibition "Artists of Moscow — the victims of the war" (1914), is one of the employees of the newspaper "Voice of Moscow" (1915), etc.
The value perepletchikova in the development of the artistic life of Moscow, the activation of its active forces, no doubt. An example of this and organization of the annual exhibitions of the "Union of Russian artists" throughout the pre-revolutionary time, and participation in the creation of the club of representatives of all branches of the arts, adopted in 1907 at the initiative perepletchikova the name of the Society "Free aesthetics" (where he, albeit briefly, together with V. A. Serov and I. I. Troyanovsky collector, becomes the head of the art Committee), and the efforts made for the construction in Moscow of the exhibition hall (the idea was not implemented), which was supposed to carry the functions of the "Palace of arts".
Bookbinders had an indisputable public authority. Just remember that when in the years of 1909-1910, the Council of the Tretyakov gallery has claimed a different kind from the City Council, the Council as proof of the validity of their actions have provided links to statements made by many of the leading Moscow artists (A. Arkhipov, V. Vasnetsov, S. Ivanov, N. Kasatkin, F. M. Malyavina, V. Polenov), which was named and Bookbinders. All this and more confirms: "public work" was one of the main occupations in his life that he devoted a lot of time and effort.