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Sebastian
Bourdon

France 
1616−1671
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After a long ordeal in my youth came to Rome, where he assisted Claude Lorrain. In 1643 appeared in Paris, wrote "the Crucifixion of St. Paul" for the Church of Notre-Dame (now kept in the Louvre) and some other paintings. During the civil war, the Bourdon went to Sweden and made here in 1652, court painter to Queen Christina. On his return to Paris, was one of the founders, then the rector of the Academy of painting. Burdon successfully was also engaged in the engraving, and engravings of it are very appreciated by lovers.

French artist the Son of Marena Bourdon, master of painting and stained glass, Sebastian was brought up in the spirit of Protestantism. At a young age he left the family and moved to Paris, where he entered the Studio of the artist, Barthelemy. 14 Burdon leaves the capital; according to the old biographers of artists, he executed the frescoes on the vault in the castle near Bordeaux. He then entered the military service in Toulouse, where the captain, noticing his indifferent attitude towards service and learning that he was the artist, freed him from military service and, perhaps, suggested the Bourdon trip to Italy. About 1634 Bourdon arrived in Rome, where at that time live masters, which had a huge influence on his work (Peter van Lahr, Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Castiglione, Sacchi). Soon the Bourdon becomes known, cleverly imitating their teachers. Along with these imitations Burdon work in their own manner. In such films as "Camp" (Oberlin Memorial Museum Allen) and "lime Kiln" (Munich, Alte Pinakothek), found motifs close "bamboccianti", they are the scientific construction of the composition, the relationship of plans and especially refined light flavor. Less known for his historical paintings of the Roman period. After a quarrel with some French, which threatened to bring about the Calvinist religion of the artist, the Bourdon in 1637 forced to return to France, accompanied by financier Asseline, whose patronage facilitated his departure from Rome. Some time a drone spends in Venice. The influence of Venetian artists determined his art on his return to Paris ("the adoration of the Magi", Potsdam, Sanssouci; "the Death of Didon", Saint-Petersburg, GOS. Hermitage), which introduced a new poetic spirit, a new concept space, the use of more bright colors in the foreground and illuminated background, sinuous rhythms, opposing hard lines of the architecture. Those same traits inherent in prints of the time ("the Baptism of the eunuch", "the Gospel shepherds", "the Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth"). In Paris Asselin represents the artist si-Mona College. As well as in Rome, Bourdon works in the genre of "bamboccianti", but his style is changing. In the painting "the Beggars" (Paris, Louvre) and in realistic engravings of the time the clothing of the characters and the Gothic architecture is interpreted very differently. Here there is a subtle sensitivity disappears and the cartoon element, the coloring is based on the combination of grey and blue tones, busy few red spots, the light becomes more refined. All this suggests that the Bourdon drew lessons from the Roman formula "bamboccianti a la francaise". Some of the features like borrowed from the brothers Lenno: they first dated painting refers to 1641, of course, was preceded by others, which could have an impact on Bourdon. In 1642-1643 in his works there are elements inspired by Northern painting ("Halt vagrants and soldiers", Paris, Louvre; "Scene in a military camp", Kassel, Museum; "the Players in backgammon", Algiers Museum; "Smoker", Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum). The painting "the hut" (Paris, Louvre) is very reminiscent of the works of kalfa, which is about 1642-1646 worked in Paris. Pivotal year in the career of the Bourdon was in 1643, when the artist performed "may" ("May 1st") painting for Notre Dame Cathedral - "the Martyrdom of St. Peter", the most Baroque of all his works: the triumph of oblique lines, spressovannost plans, moving effects of light and shade. All this is completely contrary to the art of Poussin, who was in Paris in 1640-1642. However, at about 1645 in the work of Bourdon, there are numerous echoes of classicism postovskogo: bright color, strong geometry ("SV. Family", Salzburg Museum; "the massacre of the innocents", Saint-Petersburg, GOS. The Hermitage; the last picture shows even some of the details borrowed from a composition by Poussin on the same theme, cha tie, musée condé). In 1648 Bourdon is among the founders of the Academy; the profound impact is felt in academic painting "the Martyrdom of St. Andrew" (Toulouse Museum), close to the works of Le Brun. But despite these influences Bourdon, asserts its own art, with soft, movable forms, transferred to light, bluish-grey tones with red inserts, with the fine workmanship of the air environment. In 1652 Queen Christina of Swedish invites Bourdon in Stockholm. He immediately agrees: Fronde shook France, and artists were left without orders. Becoming the first painter of the Queen, he writes a lot of her portraits, the most famous of which shows her on horseback (Madrid, Prado). In addition, the Bourdon portraits of the Swedish court ("Karl X Gustav", Stockholm, NAT. Museum; "Officer", Montpellier Museum). In these portraits the artist combines psychology and official pomp corresponding to the order. The importance of brittle draperies and white contrasts will be inherited Rigo and Lar-Gilera. In 1654 the Bourdon returned to Paris and the following year became Director of the Academy. Headman TS. Zengerle eating E. Lesuer a series of portraits for tapestries after the death of the artist gave Bourdon the order for the painting "the Execution of St. Prot" (Arras Museum). In 1656 - 1657 he made a trip to his hometown, where he bought the painting for the Cathedral and where he wrote the song "Seven works of charity" (Sarasota, Museum Ringling; known for the etchings of the Bourdon). Mr. de Bretteville instructs the Bourdon to execute the scenery in his hotel (1657 - 1663), was lost in 1840 and known by the engravings. de Varosa, drawings by Michel Corneille and the Bourdon. At the end of life Burdon creates scenic or etched landscapes, in which he now puts biblical scenes, reflecting the impact of the Domi-nikina. A virtuoso and prolific painter, Burdon writes sanguine and Lavis landscapes and historical scenes, well-structured, soft and elegant.

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