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Artemisia Gentileschi (ital. Artemisia Gentileschi, Artemisia Lomi On July 8 , 1593, Rome – June 14, 1653, Naples) was an Italian painter of the Baroque era, the daughter of the painter Orazio Gentileschi, the first woman elected to membership in the Academy of beautiful art in Florence.

Features of art of Artemisia Gentileschi. The brushwork of Artemisia have experienced not so much the influence of his father Orazio Gentileschi, how much the comprehensive influence of Caravaggio, reflected stylistically and thematically. Her painting combines a vivid dramatic effects, expressive black and white contrasts, saturated colors. Due to personal circumstances (Artemisia endured a shameful judicial process associated with sexual violence), the main theme of creativity Gentileschi becomes a women's ability to defend their own dignity. The famous Italian art historian of the twentieth century, Roberto Longhi called her "the only woman in Italy who knew anything about painting." Longhi said that because 57 famous paintings Gentileschi at least 49 women are portrayed, similar or even equal to men.

Famous paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi: "Judith decapitation Holofernes", "Susanna and the elders", "Self-portrait allegory of painting", "Lucretia","Cleopatra"

Why Italian artist of the XVII century Artemisia Gentileschi has become an icon of modern feminists? What are the rules of female behavior that existed in the era of the late Renaissance, she broke? As of Artemisia managed to become the first woman to be accepted into the Florentine Academy of fine arts? And why in her paintings there so much violence? Her real biography is more dramatic than any novel.

Artemisia Gentileschi born in a family known in Rome 30-year-old artist Orazio Gentileschiand his 18-year-old wife of Prudencio. They had sons: two died in infancy, the other two increased and also tried to draw, but the talent of Artemisia they were far away. She was 12 when her mother died, not having survived another birth. Orazio soon found a replacement wife, Artemisia began to teach the basics of the skill of the artist: sons of hope were few, but the daughter was distinguished for indefatigable work ethic and for her age with a firm hand, her drawing was just superb in accuracy.

You need to understand that Orazio was not able to teach Artemisia all – even to those he knew. Opportunities for women in those days were limited: they had access to Studio practice, and the Church forbade them to portray the naked male body – for it was quite possible to end up in jail. Orazio could not give her daughter sufficient knowledge for a very simple reason. It had not occurred to prepare the Artemisia for self-career artist – he just raised himself assistant to work on large orders.

Orazio was familiar with Caravaggio. And he understood how important it is to get orders to stick to fashion. But most of what he was able to teach Artemisia is caravaggesque chiaroscuro. Rough Caravaggio's realism was too much: Orazio Gentileschi gravitated to images of a more idyllic and relaxed.
However, the young Artemisia, this bundle of intelligence and energy, knew that she needed more. Need, for example, knowledge about the laws of space transfer, term. Need someone who could all of this teaching.

Soon the person was found. Florentine painter Agostino Tassihad "exits" on Scipione Borghese, and even Pope Paul V, went to Rome for work. The "eternal city" has experienced one of its periods of rise, the papacy was able to raise any funds for the construction of new palaces and Church complexes. Orazio Gentileschi knew that he would never have got such profitable orders because fast friends with Tassi and agreed to work with him "on the sidelines" on the decoration of the Palazzo Rospigliosi.

Further widely known, though misunderstood. Beautiful and talented Artemisia became a pupil of Tassi, who raped her. There was a trial. The trial lasted 7 months. Artemisia was subjected to humiliation like a gynecological examination and even physical torture: the then justice took over the undeniable truth of the testimony given under torture. Many feminists advocating equal rights for women, believe it Artemisia won the case, punish the rapist (Agostino received a year in prison, Artemisia they will never meet again).

But really, this story is far from unambiguous. Yes, Artemisia Gentileschi suffered reproach. But then for a year she had shared a bed with my rapist and admitted in court that he felt sympathy for him. And, of course, Artemisia could not be the initiator of the court: first, she had no such rights, and secondly, in her best interests to hide their shame, and believing the promises Tassi, she continued to hope he would marry her.

The court gave her father, Orazio Gentileschi. In those days the rape of a virgin was seen as a desecration of family honor. All of Rome was talking about the relationship of Artemisia and Agostino. It was a shame to the whole family Gentileschi – with the "PR" Orazio simply would not be able to do a successful career. But, according to Italian law XVII century, it was possible to fix, forcing the rapist to marry his victim. During the long and dirty of the proceedings it became clear that Tassi, first, already married, and secondly, repeatedly accused of rape, so become the husband of Artemisia Gentileschi it could not, even if torn.

For Artemisia this was a double betrayal: first, father put his career above her happiness. Second, Tassi not only forced her to cohabit, but basely duped. In 1612, in between court sessions, she'll say its a symbolic thing – a picture "Judith decapitation Holofernes". It will be an imitation the eponymous painting by Caravaggiobut written with much more expression and perhaps with great skill. Judith, coolly cut the head off, just a slice from a loaf of bread, Gentileschi painted with yourself. Holofernes, with her lover Agostino Tassi.

Artemesia many times to repeat this story (1, 2), izzhivaya painful experiences. Violence against women will be a theme in other of her paintings ("Susanna and the elders" - 1, 2). And the inevitable continuation of this theme will become retaliatory violence – a bloody and terrible vengeance of the female ("Jael and Sisera").

Just a month after the trial Artemisia was married to a man by the name of Pierantoni Stiattesi – some call him an artist, the other a paralegal in court. The fact is that with husband and Artemesia, breaking with the family immediately went to Florence to start life with a clean slate.

Florence was a center of arts and Sciences: even Rome compared to her perceived by the province, and Artemisia Gentileschi, one of the cleverest women of her time, knew that here she will be able to learn a lot and achieve a lot. By 1617, it already has quite a strong position: she protects the all-powerful Cosimo de ' Medici, she's pals with the most influential Christine of Lorraine, takes part in social life, friends, and corresponds with Galileo and, of course, works. A lot of work.

"Make a name" women artists in the seventeenth century it was almost impossible. They were treated with prejudice. Suffice it to say that Artemisia had no right independently not only sign contracts on the work, but even to buy paint. All it did for her husband, who became the executor of her Affairs. Large orders for painting of socially significant objects, women are treated: they had to be content with private offers, to paint portraits and still lifes.

However, Artemisia initially saw himself as a historical painter. Her talent was never feminine chamber. It was a truly epic brushwork, powerful and confident. Of course, such a strong personality, like Artemisia Gentileschi, suffered from the limitations of her sex. It's shy and creative, and financial. She was entitled to more. And she won, and when Artemesia officially became a member of the Florentine Academy of painting, it is legally equal in rights with men.

Her life was very eventful. Artemisia was interested in literature, science, theatre. Apparently, she played in one of the self portraits she depicted with a lute. Gentileschi writes day and night, plus it is constantly pregnant, and soon she and her husband already had four children. But debts are growing. Private commissions all the time again, it's exhausting, but it is not satisfying and sufficient funds.

In 1619-m die of Artemisia patron Cosimo de ' Medici. In the next few years she loses two children and understands that no longer sees the point in staying in Florence. Artemisia Gentileschi returned to Rome. Father and brothers took it cold. But it didn't matter as much. Artemesia returned not as a disgraced fugitive. She came back as a famous artist. And Rome has put a glory to her feet. It was recognized, it was considered. She had a rich and beautiful home. She won!

Soon the marriage of Artemisia cracked: the husband could no longer stay in her shadow. Artemisia was too busy to devote the time, and he began to seek solace on the side. They parted quite amicably. So Artemisia Gentileschi was able to afford what you could not have one of the women to her – count on public recognition, not being married, to earn a living by their own labor.

Its clients are European princes, king Louis XIII and Queen Maria de Medici, Duke of Bavaria promises to shower her in gold if Artemisia will arrive in Munich, the English king Charles I calls her to London.

Artemisia Gentileschi writes mostly women. Nature often serves as its own body. This is always a very strong, dominant women who control their own destiny. Such as Cleopatra (1, 2). Or a Roman character Lucrezia. Or she Artemesia.

In 1629, the year the 36-year-old Artemesia again abruptly changes his life. As soon as something ceased to meet, she with admirable courage have decided on a change. This time she goes to Naples, where he was the most dynamic art market. Naples in those days was a Spanish colony and the Spanish king is the greatest in Europe the collector. His viceroys in Naples bought all more or less valuable. Artemesia came to town as the star as mater. She founded her own art school, not afraid of wild Neapolitan manners. The artists of Naples did not recognize fair competition: they can poison the opponent or to add to its colours the acid. Artemisia even appealed to the Nuncio for permission to her servant could always carry a gun. In fact, her first of the artists appeared a bodyguard.

In Naples, Artemisia gives in marriage his eldest daughter. But she is growing up and the youngest daughter whose father is unknown. It is clear that the girl is a bastard. These children in the XVII century decided to give to a shelter, but Artemesia Gentileschi brings her, once again throwing a challenge to society and not fear his condemnation.

The society paid her that stubbornly refused to admit: Artemisia Gentileschi – a no less important an artist than her contemporaries-men. She's still hard financially, and she wants to save enough dowry for his little girl. Tired of fighting with the circumstances, Artemisia accepts a job offer in Britain.

It was there, at the court of Charles I, after many years met his father. Moved to London Orazio Gentileschi was commissioned to repaint the ceiling in the Palace of Queen Henrietta Maria at Greenwich. But he's too decrepit to cope with such a colossal amount of work, and a daughter, forgetting past grievances, comes to his aid. Their work, where the share of participation of Artemisia was far more signed, "Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi". And it shows not only gratitude to his daughter, but also her ability to forgive, which is something only a strong person.

After 2 years father died, and Artemisia returned to Naples. Her last decade was full of hardships and incessant work. That Artemisia had the recognition he deserved, says the simple fact: date and cause of her death is not known. Suggests that she died during the plague in 1653, but that is incorrect. Her real fame came to her in the twentieth century. Now the name of Artemisia Gentileschi referred to feministicka organizations and women's hotels, about her writing novels and making movies. Artemisia inspires women not only their creativity, but most of his life.

Author: Anna Yesterday


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