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Alexey
Petrovich Antropov
Russia 
1716−1795
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Alexey Petrovich Antropov (14 (25) Mar 1716, St. Petersburg — 12 (23) Jun 1795, Saint-Petersburg) is one of the first Russian artists who first began to write secular portraits and to work with the "live model"; decorator-muralist, who worked in the Baroque style and classicism (painting for the Winter and Anichkov palaces, working in Tsarskoye Selo and Peterhof, the altarpiece for the newly-built St. Andrew’s Church in Kiev, etc.); students Antropov was Peter grodin and Dmitry Levitsky.

Features of the artist Alexei Antropov. In the early period the artist created portraits of the Imperial family (Peter, Elizabeth) for the decoration of palaces built as ready-made designs and popular styles, but gradually, under the influence worked in Russia Italian Pietro Rotari Antropov began writing from life (portrait of Peter III), which dramatically increased artistic quality of his work. Despite the fact that the paintings Antropov features a well-known archaic version (deaf dark backgrounds, artless "frozen" frontal composition, hardness, color and not always the perfect picture), his best portraits, and the sharpness inherent in the psychological characteristics (especially in portraits of women, state ladies Vorontsov and Rumyantsev) and the unbiased objectivity of opinion, peculiar only to great masters. A special passion of Alex Antropov "to black, to yellow, olive tone" due to the fact that he, as the official artist of the Synod, inherits the old iconographic tradition, and this pseudo-iconic color, according to Alexander Benois, adverse effect on the subsequent history of Russian painting.

Famous paintings by Aleksey Antropov: "A portrait of the state and the ladies of the Countess M. A. Rumyantseva", "A portrait of the state and the ladies of A. M. Izmailova","Portrait of Peter III","Portrait of a priest Fyodor Dubyansky".

The artist Alexey Petrovich Antropov, though not belong to the "masters of the first rank", is still an important figure for the history of Russian painting. Not having any of their own Antiquity, nor its Revival, Russian art in the eighteenth century exercised a tremendous leap from the Middle ages from modern times. The work of Alexei Antropov — this is the first steps of the new Russian secular painting: hesitant, timid, but still quite independent.

Antropov was born in 1716 and lived until 1795. His whole life was within the limits of the XVIII century. He was nine years old when he died Peter the great, whose portraits Antropov had to write a lot. In a sense, he was lucky to be born in postperovskite a time when the efforts of the reformer nobility was valued less, and natural talents more. Antropov origin was a soldier’s son and grandson locksmith-gunsmith. Hard-working and not prone to intrigue. Only talent and hard work helped him "reach the people".

Peter Y. Antropova, Petrovsky, the life-guardsman and member of the battle of Poltava, had four sons. After service, father Antropov became a mechanic in the Armory yard, then worked in the Office of the buildings. That’s where father will do all four of his sons, Stepan will become, like his father, a mechanic, Ivan watchmaker, Alex and Nikolaybegin to study painting.

During the apprenticeship Antropov in Russia has not yet established the Academy of fine arts. All significant craftsmen were registered with the Office of the buildings worked, but also studied and taught. At different times the Office was headed by the outstanding artists Ivan Vishnyakovand Andrey Matveev. Matveev was one of the first "seniors" - those Russian artists who have received the content ("pension") to study abroad. He became a mentor Antropov (and by the way, was his distant relative). The other was his teacher Louis Caravaque. Pochep invitation to Russia, he made a career at court, knowing how to skillfully flatter and succeeded in this formal portrait. Antropov did not have a chance like Vishnyakov, to go to study in Amsterdam or Rome, so clever Caravaque was a kind of mediator between antroponym and European painting. Already a Mature master Antropov will learn from the experience of another court of an alien — Pietro Antonio Rotaryfamous "masters in women’s heads". He, in particular, Antropov will learn the art of writing from life, and not "samples".

Discipleship Antropov was delayed. For a long time he worked under other masters on the design of many iconic buildings in Moscow and St. Petersburg, Peterhof and Tsarskoye Selo. In 1742, the year rises to the throne of Elizabeth, and Antropov participated in the design of the coronation celebrations in Moscow, and also painted several portraits of the Empress. Elizabeth many and large-scale builds and Antropov there’s always work: he makes paintings for the Palace and the Summer Palace, writes icons and paints the ceiling in the Winter, participates in the creation of scenery of the Opera house.

1754 in Kiev ended which lasted five years, the construction of St. Andrew’s Church — a magnificent Cathedral in the Baroque style, constructed under the guidance of Ivan Michurin, on the orders of Elizabeth and Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Antropov was invited to Kiev is evidence that the artist has reached a certain level of recognition. But for him it was a chance: he was under 40, and he still was listed as an apprentice. In a few turns below the Cathedral on Andreevskom ride through a century and a half will live Mikhail Bulgakov, who called his hero by the wizard. Long before St. Andrew’s Church has done masters from Antropov. Not only in terms of increased professionalism, but also literally, he ceased to be an apprentice and received the title of master. His best work of this period is considered saltany the image of "the last supper".

In 1762, after the death of Elizabeth, ascended to the throne to her nephew Peter III. Immediately, there was need in this formal portrait. About the competition between artists working at the court, we can judge by this example. Painter Fedor Rokotovwrote a portrait of the new Emperorthe first, and in record time. But Peter III is your image rejected: rokotovskie portrait he did not like. And then, at the urging of Synod, the work is Aleksey Antropov.

Antropov had heard about the strangeness of "holstine", his love for Prussia, playing with dolls and military drill, and hatred of all things Russian. Being a sincere man and a good artist, Antropov did not dissemble and flatter. It portrayed Peter IIItall and ungainly man, bursting with smugness, with a disproportionately small head, but big belly. But the portrait is, oddly enough, the Emperor liked — he was happy to discover the painting exactly what he saw in the mirror. "You are a true artist— said Petr Antropov. — No one can convey to the soul of man as did you!"

Antropov was charged and intimate order — he wrote the mistress of the Emperor Elizabeth Vorontsovwhere Peter III was seriously intended to marry, citing the hated Catherine. But Fortuna court painter was changeable. Peter had been on the throne for only six months and was overthrown by his wife Catherine II. And she approached me Rokotova, declaring that all subsequent portraits have to be written with rokotovskie standard. Antropov also lost his place in the Synod and has undergone a lot of disasters before the Empress took mercy and gave him back his job.

In April 1760 Antropov wrote a petition to Catherine to grant him space. "…Have the skill to paint wall and ceiling paintings, and portraits, write and enamel", faithfully reported it about their own skills.

"Supervisor for painters and painters" — the so-called position with a salary of 600 rubles, which is already in 1761, the Holy Synod has assigned Antropov. The word "warden" meant a cross between a foreman and mentor — the artist had to "supervise" the work of the young and, if necessary, to bring them to the desired level of quality. Two decades Antropov will serve in this place. You’ll find he has a great pedagogical talent. Best known pupils Antropov will be Peter Grodin(we know externally Antropov, his wife and son thanks family portrait written by Drozdina) and brilliant Dmitry Levitsky. Aged Antropov will sacrifice his own HOMESTEAD so that there is housed an Art school, and for himself and his wife will ask only one thing — that they are not exposed to the street.

In his youth Antropov wrote a lot the Empress Elizabeth. He wrote Catherine (1, 2, 3, 4), although his work is less skilled than formal portraits of foreigners and compatriots Rokotovand Levitsky. In the neighborhood with them portraits Antropov look immature and naive student. In 1770-ies Antropov did a lot of copies of the representatives of the Romanov dynasty, and if their artistic value, historical — is undeniable.

In easel painting Antropov has worked exclusively in the genre of the portrait — main entrance and chamber. His most significant works include portraits state ladies Maria Rumyantsevaand Anastasia Izmaylovawho was the Confessor of Elizabeth father Fyodor Dubyanskyand Archbishop Sylvester Piewonderful portrait series of the family Buturlins (1, 2, 3). Despite the technical limitations Antropov, with often a weak figure, in his portraits there is a sharp and judgmental gaze.

Died Antropov 79 years old of a fever in Petersburg, where he lived, and was buried in the necropolis of the Alexander Nevsky monastery, not far from Peter III, Emperor, who, perhaps, most of all appreciate our hero. However, within a year after the death Antropov who ascended the throne the son of Peter Paul I will take dad’s ashes to another location. But dumping Antropov was left undisturbed: his plate in the Lazarev cemetery of the Lavra survived to our days.

Author: Anna Yesterday
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Anastasiya Zamurueva
Anastasiya Zamurueva
, September 5 05:26 AM 1
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    Alexey Petrovich Antropov. Portrait of Peter III
    Alexey Petrovich Antropov. Portrait of Princess T. A. Trubetskoy
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    Artworks by the artist
    33 artworks total
    1762, 250×179 cm
    1770, 268×159 cm
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