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Giuseppe Maria
Crespi

Italia 
1665−1747
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Italian painter of the late Baroque. He studied in Bologna. He studied painting Correggio, Barocci, Guercino, Mazzoni, Rembrandt's etchings. Worked in Bologna, Venice, Modena, Florence and other Italian cities. . Scene painter Giuseppe Maria Crespi is not descriptive, like the Dutch, they are not grotesque French engraver, painter is interested in the General coloristic sonority suits the specificity in the writing of the figures in the foreground to the background somewhat blurred background.

Studied at D. M. Canuti, K. Cinani, A. Burini in Bologna. Worked in Bologna, Venice, Parma, Modena, Lucca, Florence (1700-08). He studied painting Correggio, F. Barocci, Guercino, S., Mazzoni, Rembrandt's etchings.

In 1689 Crespi entered the School of drawing in Bologna, from which he was expelled for a caricature of the Trustee of the Bologna Academy count Malvasia. In the altar the images, performed prior to 1700, he followed the classical tradition of the Bologna XVII century ("the Penalty of ten thousand martyrs", Bologna, C. Santo Spirito). However, in the frescoes of the ceiling of Palazzo Pepoli, Bologna (1691-92) on the theme "seasons" showed a departure from the sublime idealized interpretation of the story in the manner of Bolognese. Characters traditional Baroque allegory of life interpreted with certainty, and sometimes with the grotesque. The congregation of gods on mount Olympus looks close to the earthly scenes of folk festivals. A departure from the sublime to the interpretation of myth in the spirit of the Bolognese was, and the early paintings "the centaur Chiron teaching Achilles archery", "Aeneas, sibyl and Charon" (C. 1700, both Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum). Antiacademic at the elected subjects and their interpretation "Orgy" Crespi "Sleeping Cupid" (CA. 1712, Leipzig, Museum of fine arts); "Nymphs disarming cupids" (Washington, national gallery; Moscow, Museum of fine arts. A. S. Pushkin). Antique idyll with merry in the lap of nature with nymphs and cupids are reminiscent of the scene of festivities, full of genuine fun.

In the early 1700s Crespi goes from mythological scenes to the depiction of scenes from peasant life, treating them first in the spirit of the pastoral ("Domestic scene", Saint-Petersburg, Hermitage), and then giving them all the more compelling character of genre painting ("Mother and child", the Berlin State Museum; "Laundress", "Woman looking for fleas", both in the Hermitage). New to the artist caravaggisti accepting the harsh lighting of dark interior space inside gives the figures of plastic clarity, increases a sense of sincerity in the narration of observable reality ("the Scene in the cellar". State. The Hermitage; "the Peasant family", Budapest, Museum of fine arts).

The highest achievement of the genre painting of the eighteenth century have been the work of Crespi's "the Fair at Poggio-a-Caiano" (about 1708, Florence, Uffizi), "Fair" (about 1709, Hermitage) with the image of the crowded folk scene. They became interested in the chart Jacques Callot, knowledge of the works of the masters of Holland of the 17th century, who worked in the genre of "bamboccianti". Crespi paintings were created during his work in Florence, at the court of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand de ' Medici, in whose collection was a lot of works by Dutch painters. Crespi scenes are not descriptive, like the Dutch, they are not grotesque French engraver, the artist is interested in the overall coloristic sonority suits the specificity in the writing of the figures in the foreground to the background somewhat blurred background. His attention is focused on the transmission of light and shadow, as in the works of A. magnasco, Crespi whose work was known and appreciated. In these paintings Crespi also committed to a thorough observation of the events, but less than magnasco, allowing yourself to bring in real events fantasy elements.

In the period 1700-20-the artist painted pictures on religious subjects, portraits, still lifes, scenes of everyday life. In the painting "massacre of the innocents" (1706, Florence, Uffizi), he refers to the painting tradition of Guercino, uses light effects and seemed to oppose their individual style fashionable in the first half of the 18th century academic interpretation of historical and religious scenes in a sentimental spirit. The rapid movement of characters sent from a few exaggerated Baroque expression. Restless shrouded in shadow figures lit mysterious greenish light, like a flare in the depths of the background and a flowing silvery glow over the entire space of the canvas. Later works on religious and mythological subjects in Baroque is eccentric there's a lot of rigor and persuasiveness in the desire to bring the events to reality ("SV. family", Moscow Museum of fine arts named after A. S. Pushkin; "the Death of Joseph," the Hermitage, "St. John of Nepomuk professed Queen of Bohemia", Turin, Galleria Sabauda).

The most significant work of a Mature artist was a series of "Seven sacraments" (Dresden Art gallery). Only one of the seven canvases of the cycle ("Confession") is dated 1712 year, which suggests that they were all filled with approximately this period. Cycle Crespi is one of the Supreme achievements of Baroque painting-18th century. And at the same time it's completely new art, which marks the end of the Baroque tradition that violates its established techniques of abstract interpretation of religious scenes. All seven paintings ("the Confession", "Baptism", "Wedding", "Communion," "Priesthood," "the Anointment," "the extreme Unction") is written in a warm reddish-brown tone of Rembrandt. Accepting the harsh lighting adds to the narrative about each sacrament a certain emotional note. It gives all the scenes the mysterious shade is a particular happening and, simultaneously, emphasizes the main concept of the artist attempting to describe the reality of life, a prisoner in these stages the main stages of a brief earthly human existence.

The influence of brushwork of Rembrandt, his interest in deep psychological treatment of the image of a man appeared in the portraits Crespi. Like the Dutch master, he also often created self-portraits (1708, Florence, Uffizi; about 1710, Bologna, national art gallery; about 1710, Hermitage; 1710, Milan, Brera), studying the distribution of light and shadow on the face, emphasizing its plastic expressiveness and accent changeable inner spiritual life. Slim emotion and the elements of everyday life are always in harmony in his "portraits-types" ("Hunter", Bologna, national art gallery; "Lotniska", 1720s, Paris, private collection). The grotesque tone, as a challenge to the Grand Baroque portrait paintings are "General Paldi" (Dresden Art gallery), "Family jeweler Zanobi" (Bologna, national art gallery).

High picturesque skill of the artist, the Bologna school was evident in the still lifes Crespi. In the still life "Two libraries" (1720-s, Bologna, civic Museum of bibliography), known in the 17th century technique of trompe l'oeil (faux), volumes of the treatise on music theory and musical scores, illuminated by the cold; steady light, give rise to images with genuine authenticity and objectivity. Tradition full bold creative, sincere art Crespi got development in Italian art of the 18th-19th centuries on his way to the verismo. Many aspects of its antiacademic manners was perceived by John. Pacetti, P. Longhi, M. Benefield, P. L. Getstsi etc. masters of Italy. As a bright and original artist Crespi was open only in the 20th century, prior To that, he was considered one of the imitators of the Carracci brothers

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