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Francesco
Parmigianino

Italia 
1503−1540
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Worked in the Mannerist style, which became a kind of reaction to regulate and balance of classical art of the High Renaissance. The real name of Parmigianino is Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola (or Mazzuoli) (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola, Mazzuoli). Was born in Parma on January 11, 1503. On the formation of his style was heavily influenced by the painting of Correggio. Style Parmigianino - refined and somewhat artificial, with decorative linearity and silver shades in the palette, anticipating painting Rokotov 1531 the artist returned to Parma, where he lived until his death on August 24 1540.

Italian painter, the representative of mannerism. It is called "little pharmchem" and Prince of mannerism. His name is associated with many legends, one of which - the passion alchemy - may cost him his life.

Parmigianino was the first in Italy by the master of etching, but the world he is known primarily as a painter. His "Madonna with the long neck" became the talk of the town, and when it comes to mannerism, it is this picture that is stored in the Uffizi gallery in Florence, cited as an example of what artists - Mannerist "did not stop before the deformation of the human body".

Nickname "Parmigianino" speaks of the place of birth - city of Parma.

Basically worked under the influence of works by Correggio in native Parma. Already for early works Parmigianino (frescoes in the Church of San Giovanni Evangelista in Parma, 1522; "self-portrait in a convex mirror, 1524) characteristic elongated proportions of the figures, unusual perspectives, optical effects.

In 1524 made a trip to Rome, where acquaintance with the achievements of Raphael and Michelangelo was an important milestone in his artistic development. The influence of Raphael evident in his paintings the Vision of St. Jerome (approx. 1526-1527, London, national gallery) and the Madonna of the rose (1527-1530, Dresden Picture gallery). Style Parmigianino - refined and somewhat artificial, with decorative linearity and silver shades in the palette, anticipating the Rococo painting. Exquisitely cool flavor, sophisticated figure Express subjective, detached from life ideal mysterious beauty.

In 1531 the artist returned to Parma, where he lived until his death. In his Parma (frescoes in the Church of Santa Maria della Steccata, 1531-1540, and the cycle of paintings Diana and Actaeon in Palazzo Fontanellato, 1523-1524) are the characteristic features of the Mannerist: elongated proportions, languid grace shapes, using decorative effects. In the future, the style of the artist has evolved towards greater rigor and revulsion. In the most famous picture Parmigianino Madonna with the long neck (1534-1540, Uffizi), with its smooth contours, frozen poses of characters and cold aristocratic elegance, the master as if they return to the classical aesthetic norms.

Portraits of Parmigianino, who played a significant role in the development of the subjective emotional directions in this genre, inspired by an aristocratic isolation and deep inner anxiety. Among the portraits of Parmigianino's most famous self-portrait in a convex mirror (1524, Vienna, Art-historical Museum), the so-called Antey (about 1530, Naples, national Museum and gallery of Capodimonte) and self-Portrait (1530, Uffizi).

Wrote Altar images, portraits and murals, the most famous of which are located in the Santa Maria della Steccata, Parma. The song became famous thanks to the spread of his own prints.

Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola which we know to be under another name, brief, Parmigianino, left us a myth and dream.

In 37 years - the tragic age of many geniuses - Parmigianino dies. Before his death he became interested in alchemy. Vasari describes how was his transformation into man "bearded, with long hair and unkempt, which fell and became unsociable and dark". Between States angel with self-portrait and mountain-alchemist Parmigianino - graceful and agreeable young man, in which, as said in Rome, "he is possessed of the spirit of Raphael". Again the mirror! Live Parmigianino is a reflection of the deceased Raphael. For a phantom alchemical wealth artist ceases to do what brought him quite real fame and money: painting.

The last days of the artist resemble a detective novel. Vasari writes:

The commander of one of the detachments of German soldiers who seized Rome, takes as ransom for the security of the drawings. But then the soldiers changed, and Francesco is on the verge of death, to depart from which helps not art, namely money: "he was taken by other soldiers and he had to pay a ransom for those very few of Scudo that if it were". Assistant Parmigianino steal the pictures, but leaves them with friends in Bologna, where the author finds only part of them. Francesco is sent to the Emperor Charles V. the Monarch like a huge portrait of him with Glory crowning its Laurel and child Hercules. Parmigianino, apparently to fill the price, refuses to sell the picture immediately, but the result leaves empty-handed.

 

And finally, death, it is clear from poisoning by mercury vapor. And the funeral naked, but... with the Episcopal cross on the breast.

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