Guido da Siena (ital. Guido da Siena) — Italian painter, who worked in Siena in the period between 1260 and 1290 years of the Sienese school.
Guido da Siena is traditionally considered, if not the founding father of the entire Sienese school of painting, at least one of the two fathers (the second I think Coppo di Marcovaldo). Around his figure for many decades, discussions do not calm down. The only work which has his signature, it is "Maesta" (i.e. solemn Madonna and child enthroned) from the Church of San Domenico (now in the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena), however, even around this picture many years of debate. The fact that in addition to the signature "Guido de Senis" it is the date — 1221, but the faces of the Madonna and child painted in the manner of the second half of the XIII century, close Cimabue. At the beginning of the XIII century, Leakey wrote another, more primitive. The opinions of experts were divided. Some thought that is truly the work of 1221, but the faces were copied in the XIV century by Ugolino di Nerio. Others believed that someone deliberately recorded the previous the current date, however, x-ray examination of this point of view is not confirmed. Still others suggest that this icon was rewritten from more ancient sample with a view to its replacement (in improved form), it is alleged, was transferred by the figures. Anyway, but the giant, size 2.83 x 1.94 meters has become a point of reference with which professionals were trying to recreate the works of Guido da Siena.
Artistic activity Guido da Siena fell on that period in Siena's history, when after the battle of Montaperti on 4 September 1260, in which the Sienese Ghibellines defeated the Florentine supporters of the Pope — Guelphs, in Siena began to build up the cult of the Madonna. In retaliation for the defeat of the Pope on November 18, 1260, Siena was excommunicated from the Church. For religious Sienese it was very important that despite this, the Madonna still stood on the side of the Siena commune. Partly for this (and partly in defiance of the popes) the Madonna of religion has become transformed into the image of the political. The prototype of this new manner of images of the Madonna served as a Byzantine icon "virgin Hodegetria", but the latter has recreated her image on the. In the "Madonna del Bordone" (1261 TS. Santa Maria dei Servi), written by Coppo di Marcovaldo, you can see quite a secular outfit similar to Danie Queens, though written in the iconographic tradition, and the cloak of the Madonna visible Imperial eagles (Imperial eagles are present on the "Maesta" Guido, they embellish the fabric on the back of the throne — a motif borrowed from Coppo). From the image of the spiritual protector of the Madonna transformed into the image of a Republican ruler, and her Royal status and power over the city began to emphasize the presence of the retinue of the four patron saints (the idea is also clearly borrowed from the Byzantine iconostasis). So it appears the Madonna in the work of Guido da Siena, "Madonna with saints" (CA. 1270,Siena, Pinacoteca). In the future, the Royal entourage Madonna increasingly grew, Duccio she is already 40 persons.
"Maesta" Guido da Siena is also in all probability was not a separate image, but was a triptych. Experts suggest that on the sides of Madonnas were placed images of saints. The reason for this version is that the triangular top of the icon with the image of Christ blessing and two angels were kept in a different place in the Benedictine monastery of Siena, that is, in all probability, the altar was dismantled.
About the life of Guido da Siena, almost nothing is known. Critics outline the range of artists, from whom he could learn, but this range is diverse — from Bonaventure, Berlingieri to Dietisalvi di Speme. Besides the two works mentioned here, Guido is credited with the "Madonna and child" of the Siena gallery, and several smaller works depicting Evangelical scenes from different museums that belong to the works of Guido da Siena from time to time disputed.
The works of Guido da Siena had a significant impact on the development of the Siena jivopisi the end of XIII — beginning of XIV century.
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