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Illarion
Mikhailovich Pryanishnikov

Russia 
1840−1894
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Illarion Mikhailovich Pryanishnikov (1840-1894) — Russian artist and teacher, master of genre painting, member of St. Petersburg Academy of arts (from 1893), one of the founders of the Peredvizhniki group.

Illarion Pryanishnikov was born March 20 (April 1) 1840, in the village of Timasheva (today's Kaluga oblast) in a family of merchants.

From 1856 to 1866 he studied at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture from such masters as E. S. Sorokin and S. K. Zaryanko. Much to Pryanishnikov opened independently, paving the way for a new, realistic vision of art.

Already in the first works of the early 1860s ("the Boy-peddler, Read letters to a petty bench") clearly manifested traits of his talent: observation, ability to live and accurate socio-psychological characteristics, rich colors of the painting. A picture painted by him in the last year of training - "Jokers. Gostiny Dvor in Moscow" (1865), immediately brought him fame.

The painting caused the indignation of some of the "zealots" of official academic art who felt that the young painter made the destroyer of the "high" destination of the art in perfect shape to Express eternal truths.

The next stage of the development of creativity Pryanishnikov is associated with the paintings "fire Victims" (1871), "Empty" (1872), which I exhibited at the traveling exhibition and was recognized as criticism of the major achievements of Russian painting. Works Pryanishnikova 1870s differed from the earlier more compositional integrity and coloristic richness. The scenery in these pictures from the conditional background became poeticized environment that enriches the imagery distinguishing scenes gleaned by the author from people's lives.

Widely known painting "the Episode of the war of 1812" (1874). The first painter Pryanishnikov portrayed as the Patriotic war of the people. Not generals, and shabbily dressed guerrillas, peasants, leading the snowy plains French prisoners, brought in this modest, but very expressive painting as the true creators of the victory over Napoleon's army. The severity of the historical motive did not prevent Pryanishnikova to achieve subtle, refined colours of the painting, to convey his admiration for the beauty of the Russian winter. In the 1880-90s, Pryanishnikov worked on large-scale canvases, depicting the many faces of national weight and allowed to join in the General action of different types and characters of a Russian village: "Spasov day in the North" (1887), "Total sacrificial cauldron at the feast day" (early 1890s). And next in his work arose the chamber, "twilight" mood images and stories "In the artist's Studio" (1890), "In the province" (1893). They Pryanishnikov in common with the aspirations of the painters of the next-generation.

Pryanishnikov was a member of the Association of traveling art exhibitions since its Foundation, and with II the traveling exhibition became a permanent member of the Board of the Association.

As a painter also experienced a strong influence of V. G. Perov.

In 1870 Pryanishnikov was awarded the title of artist 1st degree.

He was a teacher at the school (1873-94), the teacher of many subsequently famous artists - S. V. Ivanova, N. Kasatkina, A. Korovin, M. V. Nesterov, V. K. Byalynitsky-Birulya, and others In 1893 Pryanishnikov was elected a member of the AH, but to begin teaching it did not. And the last picture Pryanishnikov - "Procession" - was left unfinished due to the death of the author. Lived mainly in Moscow, but traveled to Russian North for sketching from nature. Participated in the work on the murals of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow.

Pryanishnikov died on 12 (24) March 1894 in Moscow. Its named after a street in Northern Moscow.

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