Born in Kostroma, learned from his father Andrei Osipovich Karelin, and then at the Academy of arts in 1883 and 1885 by K. E. Makovsky.
Lived in Nizhny Novgorod, after in Ashgabat. He mainly painted historical paintings and portraits. Participated in the painting of the pavilion of the Nizhny Novgorod all-Russian exhibition in 1896, the Church Uhlan regiment in Warsaw (1907), prepared the cartoons for the Church of the Resurrection.
In 1892 he received the title of honorary member of the Academy of arts for the painting "Overseas jester".
In 1925 – 1926 – the chief artist of Turkmenistana (Ashghabad). In the same city sculptor E. R. Tripoli fulfilled the monument to Lenin on the sketch Karelin.
Andrey Andreevich was one of the organizers of the City's art and history Museum in Nizhny Novgorod, the art Department of the Museum of Turkmen in Ashgabat, participated in the restoration of technology of traditional Central Asian majolica. Author of numerous articles on art, photography, education, Museum business.
For the temple of the resurrection of Christ executed the cartoons for the mosaics of the interior 10: "the Parable of Lazarus after death", and 9 mosaics of saints, martyrs, apostles and Reverend on the pilasters.