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Francesco
Solimena

Italia 
1657−1747
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SOLIMENA (Solimena), Francesco (1657-1747) was an Italian painter of the late Baroque. Lived and worked in Naples. Paintings of the churches of Naples (San Paolo Maggiore, gesù Nuovo, San Domenico Maggiore).

SOLIMENA, Francesco (Solimena, Francesco), ProTV. "Abate Ciccio" ("'abbate Ciccio") - 1657, Canale di Serino, Avellino, — 1747, Barra di Napoli. Italian painter of the Neapolitan school. One of the greatest masters of the late Baroque. Studied with his father Angelo's Solimena, which initially worked, and possibly F. De Maria in Naples. From the latter inherited the interest in the paintings of Domenichino, whose works were in Naples. On the formation of Solimena was influenced by the paintings of Luca Giordano, Mattia Preti, Giovanni Lanfranco, from whom he learned the techniques of Baroque painting. The first work was executed together with his father (Pieta, 1678, Nocera Superiore, the Church of San Bartolomeo; the Madonna and child between St. Peter and St. Paul's, 1684, Naples, Church of San Nicola Alla carità, etc.). Imitation caravaggists techniques Luca Giordano appeared in one of the first independent works of Solimena — in fresco paintings of the Church of Santa Maria Donna Regina (SV. Francis receives symbols of the priesthood in the presence of the Father Almighty, 1691-1693). However, in the image of the feelings of the characters tangible, more profound emotional interpretation than Giordano, tended to be more superficial interpretation of religious subjects.

The first major works was the Fall of St. Simon Magus and the conversion of Paul (both CA. 1690, Naples, Church of San Paolo Maggiore). Among complex multi-storey architectural structures, lead the beholder's gaze far upwards, soar small figures of saints and angels. Unlike Luca Giordano Solimena will often introduce such an illusory perspective of the building. Moved in violent motion figures give rise, however, more sensitive feeling the festive spirit, anticipating graceful secular allegory of Rococo. Caravaggisti reception complex and intense game of patches of light and shadow brings contrast, the emotional tension in the composition of the altarpiece (the Vision of St. Gregory the Great, 1680s, Solofra <Авеллино>the Church of San Domenico; the Torment of St Giustiniani, Naples, Church of San Paolo Maggiore). Already in these early works, Francesco Solimena reveals its outstanding scenic talent and ability to interpret the style and techniques of interest to his masters.

After visiting Salimeni of Rome (CA. 1700), exploring the arts K. Maratti in his paintings is enhanced, rationality and classic features. Solimena became better known, fulfilling orders for courts of France, Spain, Austria, Portugal. In Italy he was invited to work in Turin (SV. Bonaventure receives from Madonna relic San Sepolcro, 1712, Turin Cathedral), but it remains true to Naples, where he continued to work, doing, however, other important orders. It helps students, educated in created by the artist in the Academy ("Accademia Solimenesca"), such as C. Conca, K., Giaquinto, F. de moor, J. Bonito and others Stage works in Naples began painting the ceiling and the fresco the Expulsion of Heliodorus from the temple (1725, Naples, Church of San Domenico Maggiore), as well as the Sistine chapel of SV. Anne in the Church of gesù Nuovo (sketch — Paris, Louvre), in which the affected features of the late style of the artist: a less delicate flavor; increased rationalism's compositional and pictorial solution, despite the bravura brushstroke, and some frozen poses and gestures in the depiction of small figures of saints, soaring among the powerful architectural structures. In a similar manner, apparently, was performed and the painting of the ceiling of the hall of the Senate in Genoa (1715-1717, not preserved), to which there are two sketches — the Torment of St. Giustiniani (NAT. the Museum and galleries of Capodimonte), the arrival of the ashes of John the Baptist (Genoa, collection De Ferrari). And along with these decorative works, which affected the amplification classic shit, the artist creates a series of easel paintings (the Kidnapping of Horatii, Rome, Galleria Spada; Rebekah and Eliezer, Vienna, Academy of fine arts), in which the scene is transmitted rocaille Curling finesse.

Solimena played a prominent role at the Academy of fine arts of Naples. On his initiative in 1704 in Bologna (in 1733 in Naples) was published a Dictionary of Italian painters P. A. Orlandi, and in 1742 — the work of B. De Domenici

Contemporaries estimated his art. "His manner was tasteless, and his talented compositions no intent," he wrote in 1739 Charles de Brosse. The author of the work of the masters of Naples B. De Domenici called his art "the personification of style of the Bourbons" (1742). Highly valued by his contemporaries portraits of Solimena. In his paintings (portrait of Venice, the meeting Sonyne), Male portrait (Moscow, GOS. Museum of fine arts. A. S. Pushkin) emphasize the gentility of the model. Baroque portraits by their descriptive structure, as evidenced by the Majesty of the poses, the elegance of lush clothes, the image patterns on the background of the solemn curtains in the offices, through the window which is visible to the ancestral castle: Portrait of Philip V of Bourbon Spanish (Caserta Royal Palace), portrait of a Neapolitan noble ladies (London, gallery Hazlitt). Secular refinement endowed with portrait images in the picture Count Altan kneels in front of Austrian Emperor Charles VI (Vienna, Museum of art history). Among these papers there is a self-portrait of Solimena (C. 1715-1720, Naples, NAT. the Museum and galleries of Capodimonte), in which the artist seeks to emphasize the intellectual character of a painter, particularly of his craft, depicting himself in his Studio at his easel, next to the canvases he created.

Had the honorary award — the order of Calatrava and the title of nobility "Cavalier Calabrese nobilitato". The work of Solimene had a great influence on his students, who worked in the 1st floor. XVIII century in Rome, many masters studied his paintings, his works have been performed engraving.

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