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Ian Barthold
Jongkinde

Netherlands 
1819−1891
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I. B. Jongkind in 1836-1837 years studying in the Hague, Andreas Selfhow, the largest Dutch landscape painter of the time. Early work with oil and watercolors by Inkind constitute full compliance with the canons of the Dutch landscape school. Pochep scholarship to study painting, goes to Paris. Written in this period Inkindo canvas, allows to assume his familiarity with the works of Camille Corot and Richard Bonington.

By the early 50-ies of the XIX century in the watercolors the artist's first notable impressionistic features — brightening palette of colors and specific lighting. In 60-ies they are already committed impressionistic paintings. Claude Monet and Paul Signac called I. B. Inkind his teacher.

Johan Barthold Jongkind, or as it was called French friends, Jean-Baptiste, was a native of Holland. He was born in the town of Lattrop near Rotterdam, he began to study painting at the Academy in the Hague have known at the time of the Dutch landscape painter A. Schelfhout, who wrote winter of Holland with an eye for classic examples of this genre. Apparently, Jongkind not considered sufficient training compatriots and I have to say, did so, as did many of the Dutch painters. After the debut in the Hague he went to study in Paris.

After the Napoleonic campaigns of the Netherlands is not only in the political but also the artistic interests of France. Artists-romantics reveal the art of Rembrandt, the painters of the Barbizon school, Dutch landscape painting of the 17th century. In turn, for the Dutch painters of the 19th century Paris was the artistic center, where they passed a school of excellence and ideas.

In Paris, Jongkind appeared in 1846 and entered the Studio of Picot, who at the same time, he studied his compatriot, artist Israels. Pretty soon Jongkind left the Studio, preferring classes with well-known marine painter eugène Isabey, whom he met on the shores of the English channel. Dutchman Jongkind attracted Isabey painting depicting the sea, ships in which writing himself a consummate master. But long-term fellowship of the Frenchman and the Dutchman revealed a fundamental difference in the approach to the landscape in the vision of the nature, method, image it on canvas, the aims and objectives of creativity. If the salon of the painter Isabey was interested in external beauty romanticized seascapes, which he saturated with dramatic contrasts of light, Jongkind aim to introduce into the picture the feeling of true life, to convey a transparent movable air filled with light, shimmering surface of the water, the thrill of changing a life in nature. These tasks were close to the French artist from Le Havre Eugène Budena which Jongkind met and coexisted in Honfleur. Through the Boudin Jongkind learned of his younger contemporary Claude Monet, who not only keenly embraced the lessons of "the great painter of seascapes" (so named Jongkind Monet), but is brilliantly developed them, creating impressionistic landscape. Write what you see, not what you know, and that is the approach the Dutch painter to the image of nature. And to be truthful commit bystroprokhodaschee States had to go outside with a notebook and watercolors. In this technique, he could quickly translate to paper his observations are always sharp and accurate in color sidenote relationships, your impressions, fresh and fleeting. Trying to capture in watercolors the immediacy of impressions, Jongkind in the process reveals how different looks one and the same motif at different times of day, in different atmospheric conditions. In 1864, thirty years before the series "Rouen cathedrals" by Claude Monet, Jongkind wrote two views of Notre Dame Cathedral — winter morning and at sunset. He's in his fugitive sketches-watercolours, depicting not only sea, but also the urban landscapes of France and the Netherlands, using separate strokes of pure, not mixed on the palette the paints that caused a constant interest in his work not only the Impressionists, but from the masters of another generation: divisionista Seurat and Signac, in a sign of deep respect for his art, wrote a book about him. Using separate swab of pure color, the artist intuitively came to the new painting system, revised again open optical laws and realized in painting of the next generations.

Jongkind, during the sessions of joint work with Claude Monet, EN plein air gave lessons to a new vision of nature to the young artist, remained meanwhile in the history of painting only a precursor of the Impressionists, representative of the so-called "channel school" of painting, combining Jongkind, Boudin, Lein, Kalsa. And rightly so, as he wrote on the nature sketches-watercolors full of spontaneity visions of nature, the swiftness of the image light, flying strokes, ripe for the processes in the nature change, used them only as a preparatory material for the work in the Studio on canvases. Undoubtedly, the picture painted in the Studio, lost in comparison with the watercolor sketch of the large share of perception, smear — fast, and palette — color purity, although in comparison with landscapes predecessors Jongkind it seems highly vysvetleni that signalled a new stage in the development of landscape painting. His seascapes, cityscapes acquire a Museum quality, classical appearance of pictures painted in the Studio. They have had success among the audience who attended the exhibition, bringing the artist and money orders. They introduced novelty in the landscape painting of the second half of the 19th century, foreshadowing the future development of this genre. Including these paintings by famous Soviet audiences for individual reproductions in books. In the Moscow State Museum of fine arts collection has two paintings Jongkind. Unfortunately, watercolors of Yongkinda not in Soviet collections, they are mainly concentrated in the museums of France. He treasured his watercolors, often featuring their colleagues, but did not dare to sell them. The true innovation of the art of Jongkind was known to his friends-painters, but the public was not fully appreciated.

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