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Coppo di
Markovaldo

Italia 
1225−1274
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His name is mentioned in several documents: in 1260, he took part in the battle of Montaperti and was taken prisoner in Siena; in the following year he created the "Madonna" for TS. in Siena, and in 1274 together with his son Salerno painted "Cross" for the Cathedral in Pistoia. Pro-

dlitelnoe stay, Coppo in Siena was certainly one of the important factors that contributed to the flourishing of the Sienese school of painting.

Coppo di Marcovaldo is one of the Central figures in the artistic process of the second half of the XIII century, which was very important for the development of the Sienese school of painting. The fate of this painter are very interesting. The archival documents say that in 1260 he had taken part in the battle of Montaperti on the side of the Florentine supporters of the Pope — Guelphs. In that battle the Florentines were defeated by the Ghibellines of Siena, Coppo di Marcovaldo Siena was in captivity. In captivity he spent a short time. Coppo, was a capable artist, and his freedom was bought by the fact that in 1261 wrote an image of the Madonna for Siena Church Service (the so-called "Madonna del Bordone"). Yet, Coppo languished in captivity, the Pope Alexander IV in retaliation for the defeat of Siena was excommunicated from the Church. The chief patron of their city, the Sienese believed the virgin, and in defiance of the papacy for promoting the idea that the power of heaven above the papal power, began to portray the Madonna in the Queen-lady of Siena.Interestingly, Coppo di Marcovaldo was the first artist to put in his "Madonna del Bordone" of Siena, the patroness of Royal symbols — the eagles on the cloak (shawl). So fate made a sudden turn, turning of the artist from the enemy of Siena in her supporter took not the last part in the formation of the Sienese cult of the Madonna. In the next work, "Madonna and child" (C. 1265, the Church of San Martino dei Servi in Orvieto), the head of the Madonna is decorated with a crown and Royal eagles, stressing the status of the Madonna as the mistress moved onto the fabric covering the back of the throne; Madonna aristocratic and Regal. This technique is followed, Coppo began to use other artists, such as Guido da Siena.

After the "Madonna del Bordone" second documented work by Coppo di Marcovaldo is a painted cross, which in 1274 he created together with his son, Salerno di Coppo, for the Cathedral in Pistoia. In this work, Coppo starting from the prototype, created by Giunta Pisano, further develops the plasticity of the body, the subtlety of the writing and drama of the event. The Giunta Coppo di Marcovaldo borrowed the technique of transmission of light and shade. It brought back the faces of his Madonnas, humanized them, especially when compared with the works Margaritone d Arezzo, considered the face of the virgin exclusively as an attribute of Christian character.

In addition to these works Coppo di Marcovaldo is credited with the altarpiece "the Archangel Michael and scenes of his story", which is now considered the earliest of his works (1250-60s., San Casciano Val di Pesa, sacred art Museum), another painted cross (after 1261, San Gimignano, Pinacoteca), and the altarpiece "St. Francis and scenes from his life", which was previously attributed to the so-called. Master of San Francesco Bardi (Florence, C. Santa Croce, Cappella Bardi). This group of works traditionally add the famous mosaics of the baptistery forensische with the image of hell. I assume that this work was created under the impression from the descriptions of purgatory in "the divine Comedy" by Dante.

In Byzantine painting, which at that time was dominant in the art of Tuscany and Siena in particular, Coppo made sense of plastic expression. While his contemporary Cimabue appealed to early Byzantine art, Coppo di Marcovaldo in his Mature period he created variations on the theme of late Byzantine painting. Its long presence in Siena was the factor positively influenced the growth of the Sienese school of painting.

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