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Tobias
Stimmer

Switzerland 
1539−1584
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Stemmer, was the eldest of 12 children of Christoph Stimmer Younger (1520/1525-1562), painter and calligrapher who has taught the son the basics of the craft. About his education we know very little; some researchers believe that Stemmer studied in Zurich by Hans Asper, others that he remained in his native city, and his teacher was Felix Lindmayer. The artist finished his education about 1556. Perhaps, Stimmer was in Italy, where together with Giambattista Zelotti and his students worked on the frescoes in the Palazzo Trevizan in Venice, or together with Lindmayer he made a trip on the Danube. In any case, he was familiar with the Venetian painting school by Altdorfer.

The first dated drawings of Stimmer indicate early maturity of the artist ("the Agony in the garden", 1557, Dessau, State. Gal.). Placed in a disturbing night scene, whose drama is enhanced by the tension of light and shade, this scene reminds me of the art of Grunewald. But the composition itself the artist confronts the problems that he has yet to decide light and space. In 1560 he is mentioned in the fiscal list of Schaffhausen; in these years he seems to have acquired some fame as he receives a number of orders for execution of portraits (portrait of Konrad Gessner, 1564, Schaffhausen, Museum Allerheiligen; a double portrait of Jakob Switzer and his wife, Elsbeth Lohman, 1564, Basle, Kunstmuseum). Figures illuminated by the light that enhances the richness of color; close but strong composition recalls paintings by Niklaus Manuel. In addition, the artist created a model of a silver Cup, on behalf of the people of Schaffhausen were awarded to Conrad Dasypodius, mathematics, in gratitude for his dedication in the book "Geometry" of Euclid, published in Strasbourg. For the Strasbourg publishers, he performed and numerous illustrations.

In 1567-1570, Stemmer by order of Hans von Waldkirch executed the frescoes on the facade of the "knights house" in Schaffhausen (restored in 1919, these frescoes are now in the Museum Allerheiligen in Schaffhausen, but a copy of the work of Karl Resch returned to the facade). Written in the tradition of Titian, Veronese and Holbein frescoes of Stimer followed by historical and mythological programme on the theme of war and peace. About 1570 the artist moved to Strasbourg, where in the same style creates a painting of the astronomical clock in the Cathedral (particularly the prophecies of Daniel, the seasons, Urania and Copernicus). During these years he began to study engraving on wood, receives numerous orders and takes care of his brothers, Josias and Christoph. In 1576, the Basel printing house of Thomas Guarino appear 170 woodcuts on biblical themes in the paintings of Stimmer; they were a huge success: according to the testimony Sandrart, in 1637 they were copied Ruben. In subsequent years, Stimmer adorns the large gallery in the castle of the Margrave Philip II of Baden-Baden and became his official painter. These compositions were destroyed in 1689 by French troops; their description, made by the artist and dated may 17, 1578, stored in the City archives of Strasbourg. In it, in particular, referred to the portraits in the growth of electors, silhouettes of contemporary emperors, and also the signs of the zodiac, the months, allegorical figures, images, virtuous and dissolute life of man and the Savior in the circle of the elect.

In 1580, Stimer writes and illustrates their own free drawings satirical work "Comedy." In 1582, he returned to Strasbourg, where he works for the monastery of Saint-Jean-ionds, lavishing his advice to many artists, in particular Muraru, Ling and Hans Pippo. From the time of Holbein it is the largest artistic personality; his originality is that he has managed to combine Mannerist principles of his era with elements of the Danube school and the aesthetics of dürer and create at the intersection of German and Italian traditions of independent artistic language, which the South German Baroque.

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